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40 Cards in this Set

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relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
Ivan Pavlov
By observing dogs during the digestion process, He formulated his theory of classical conditioning
idea that the consequences of a behavior determine whether it is likely to be repeated - forerunner to operant conditioning/learning
Classical Conditioning
Is the organism learning associations between events that it doesn’t control
Operant Conditioning
learning associations between its behavior and resulting events
Temporal Contiguity
closeness in time. Closeness between a response and the eliciting stimulus or presentation of new environmental event and eliciting stim.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
salivation when food is in the mouth
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned Response (CR)
learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
the initial stage in classical conditioning.
the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response
The neutral stimulus (CS) must occur in close proximity to the UCS –
negative stimulus
Pairing of a bird/harmless spider with a negative stimulus causes fear of the bird/spider.
reinforcing stimulus
eliciting stimulus strengthens the environmental control of a behavior
Behavioral Discrepancy
only a stim. that evokes a B.D. or behavioral change can function as a reinforcer.
Example of parental praise . . .
Conditions required for learning
Temporal contiguity
Behavioral discrepancy
Successive approximations
Response chaining
learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly
rat rearing toward the top of the cage/chamber.
Those members that can more quickly learn are more successful – example of Siamese fighting fish.
Taste stimulus
helps to protect/preserve the organism.
acquires control over nausea
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Primary reinforcers (food)
stimulate the VTA in the midbrain- communicate with the frontal lobes – release dopamine.
Primary Reinforcer – Unconditioned reinforcer
innately reinforcing stimulus
i.e., satisfies a biological need
Not learned – based on natural selection – see previous slide
Conditioned Reinforcer
-stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer
-secondary reinforcer
-Are learned
helps to strengthen connections with various neurons – thus causing us to learn the association –
Automatic Conditioned Reinforcement
-Automatic/internal or self-generated feedback.
-Not dependent upon the intervention of another
-Internal shaping
Continuous Reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs
Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement
-reinforcing a response only part of the time
-results in slower acquisition but greater resistance to extinction
Fixed Ratio (FR)
-reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
-faster you respond the more rewards you get
-different ratios
-very high rate of responding
like piecework pay
Variable Ratio (VR)
-reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
-average ratios
-very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
like gambling, fishing
Fixed Interval (FI)
-reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
-response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near
Variable Interval (VI)
-reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
-produces slow steady responding
like pop quiz
When a response that was previously reinforced is no longer reinforced, resulting in a weakened behavior
in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS
in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced
Spontaneous Recovery
reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
Stimulus Generalization
The process by which learning in one environment affects behavior in similar environments
tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
If an operant response is followed by an eliciting stimulus and the operant response decreases in strength, then the eliciting stimulus has functioned as a punisher.
Negative Side-Effects of Punishment
-Risk of injury
-Inducement of fear and hostility
-Organisms learn only which response not to make
-Punishment does not teach the organism desirable responses
Observational Learning
Learning occurs not only through classical and operant conditioning but through observing the reward and punishments that others receive.
Absence of direct experience.
process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Prosocial Behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior
opposite of antisocial behavior
Mirror Neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy