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39 Cards in this Set

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Piaget's term for modifying an existing cognitive schema or creating a new one; a strategy of successful cognitive aging whereby an older individual disengages from activities that stress cognitive limits and diverts energy to areas of expertise
accomodation
Kaufman's term referring to the finding that elderly people tend to maintain a consistent concept of themselves that is generally unaffected by age
ageless self
Piaget's term for adding information to an existing schema
assimilation
a need for definite knowledge on an issue and a desire to avoid confusion and uncertainty
cognitive closure
the desire to maintain cognitive closure
cognitive permanence
the inclination to reach cognitive closure as quickly as possible
cognitive urgency
a culture in which individuals define themselves as members of a group(s), subordinate personal to group goals, and feel strong attachment to and concern for the well-being of the group
collectivist culture
in stage 5 in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the individual is challenged to develop an integrated sense of self, making commitments in regard to occupation, ideology, and sexual orientation and role
ego identity versus role confusion
Piaget's term for a state of cognitive harmony or balance
equilibration
the female gender role, emphasizing relationships with others
expressive role
the sociocultural aspects of being a female or male, as distinct from the biological aspects
gender
one's concept of self as either male or female
gender identity
society's description of appropriately masculine or feminine characteristics and behaviors; the expressive and instrumental roles
gender roles
Mead's concept that we begin to take perspective of other people in judging ourselves, incorporating their standards into our sense of who we are
generalized other
an overall sense of self-worth, based on the synthesis of seperate self-esteems in specific areas of our lives (such as academic self-esteem, social self-esteem, and so on)
global self-esteem
George's idea that some aspects of the self-concept are more central and critical to the sense of self than others; these are core qualities
hierarchy of importance
George's notion that some self-conceptions are so central to our sense of who we are that they affect every aspect of our lives; others are less influential
hierarchy of pervasiveness
Erikson's term for a sense of who one is, what one believes in, and where one is headed in life
identity
the most mature of Marcia's identity statuses; refers to an individual who has made self-chosen commitments in the areas critical to identity formation
identity achievement
an individual who is not in a state of identity crisis and has made no identity-related commitments; the least mature of Marcia's statuses
identity diffusion
Marcia's term for an individual who has made commitments chosen by others
identity foreclosure
Marcia's term for an individual currently in a state of identity crisis and unable to make the necessary commitments
identity moratorium
Marcia's model of a style of coping with the crisis of identity formation
identity statuses
a culture in which individuals define themselves as seperate from the group, place personal goals above group goals, and feel less attachment to and concern for the group than in collectivist cultures
individualist cultures
the male gender role, emphasizing independent achievement
instrumental role
Jame's term for the part of the self that actually knows and experiences things: the knower; also called the phenomenal self, it constructs the Me-self
I-self
Cooley's idea that our sense of self is largely derived from our evaluation of feedback received from others, as if they served as a social mirror
looking glass self
synonymous with the self-concept, Jame's term for what is known about the self
Me-self
equivalent to the I-self, the part of the self that actually experiences things subjectively
phenomenal self
Piaget's term for a cognitive concept, a unit of knowledge
schemas
Baltes and associate's view that successful cognitive aging involves maximizing cognitive strengths while developing compensatory skills to shore up weaknesses
selective optimization with compensation
consists of all the knowledge, feelings, and attitudes we have about our own being as unique, functioning individuals
self
our knowledge about ourselves; synonymous with Me-self
self-concept
our beliefs and expectations about whether we have the ability to successfully complete a particular task
self-efficacy
refers to feelings we have towards ourselves -- an evaluation of self-worth; those with high self-esteem have assessed the self and find it to have value
self-esteem
information seen as pertinent to the self is processed and retained more efficiently
self-reference effect
a theory or concept of the self; a concept based on information-processing theory
self-schema
refers to the biological, as opposed to the sociocultural, aspects of being female or male
sex
the age that one feels psychologically
subjective age