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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define Biological Psychology.
branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and body systems and processes.
Define Neuroscience.
The study of the nervous system, especially the brain.
Define Neuron.
Specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cell.
Define Glial Cells.
Support cells that assist neurons by providing structural support, nutriton, and removal of cell wastes; manufacture myelin.
Define Sensory Neuron.
Convey information to the brain from sense organs and internal organs.
Define Motor Neuron.
Type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract.
Define Interneuron.
Type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron to the next.
Define Cell Body.
Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus.
Define Dendrites.
fibers that extend from the neuron's cell body and receieve information from other neurons and sensory receptor cells.
Define Axon.
carries a neuron's messages to other body areas.
Define Myelin Sheath.
covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication speed.
Define Action Potential.
an electrical impulse where information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron.
Define Stimulus Threshold.
The minimum level of stimulation required to activate a certain neuron.
Define Resting Potential.
where a neuron is prepared to activate and communicate its message if it receives stimulation.
Define the All-or-None law.
either a neuron is stimulated enough and an action potential occurs or a neuron is not stimulated enough and an action potential does not occur.
Define synapse.
The point of communication between two neurons.
Define Synaptic Gap.
The tiny space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of an adjoining neuron.
Define Axon Terminals.
Branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles.
Define Synaptic Vesicles.
tiny sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
Define Neurotransmitters.
Chemical messanges made by a neuron.
Define Synaptic Transmission.
The process when neurotransmitters are released by a neuron, cross the synaptic gap, and affect another neuron.
Define Reputake.
The process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach from a neuron and are reabsorbed by a presynaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again.
Define Acetylcholine.
Neurotransmitter that causes muscle contraction and is involved in memory function and learning.
Define Dopamine.
Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of bodily movement, and pleasurable sensations.
Define Serotonin.
Neurotrasmitter involved with mood, emotional states, and sleep. Lack can cause depression.
Define Norepinephrine.
Neurotrasmitter involved in learning and memory. Activates neurons in brain. Flight or Fright situations.
Define GABA.
Neurotrasmitter that usually communicates an inhibitory message to other neurons to prevent anixiety.
Define Endorphins.
Neurotrasmitters that kill pain. Body's natural pain killer.
Define the Nervous System.
The primary internal communication network of the body; divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Define Nerves.
Bundles of neuron axons that carry information in the peripheral nervous system.
Define the Central Nervous System.
Divison of the nervous system that consists of the brain adn spinal cord.
Define Spinal Reflexes.
Simple, automatic behaviors that are processed in the spinal cord.
Define the Periphreal Nervous System.
Division of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system.
Define the Somatic Nervous System.
Subdivison od the peripheral nervous system that communicates sensory information to the central nervous system and carries motor messages from the central nervous system to the muscles.
Define the Autonomic Nervous System.
Subdivison of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions.
Define Sympathetic Nervous System.
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to preceived emergencies or threats.
Define Parasympathetic Nervous Systems.
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily functions and conserves the body's physical resources.
Define Endocrine System.
System of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Define Hormones.
Chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream primarily by endocrine glands.
Explain the Hindbrain.
Region at the base of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. Contains several structures that regulate basic life functions. Contains the pons, cerebellum, reticular formation, medulla, and substantia nigra.
Explain the Midbrain.
Middle region of the brain; involved in processing visual and auditory information.
Explain the Forebrain.
Uppermost and largest brain region composed of several structures, the most prominent being the cerebral cortex. Contains the cerebral cortex, and the corpus callosum.
Define Pons.
Helps coordinate movements on left and right sides of body.
Define Cerebellum.
Coordinates movement, balance, and posture.
Define Reticular Formation.
Helps regulate attention and alertness.
Define Medulla.
Controls breathing, heartbeat, and other vital functions.
Define Substantia Nigra.
Motor skills.
Define Cerebral Cortex.
Divided into 2 hemispheres and responsible for sophisticated mental functions.
Define Corpus Callosum.
Thick band of axons connecting the 2 hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
Define the Temporal Lobe.
Near temples that is the primary recieving area for auditory information.
Define the Occipital Lobe.
Primary recieving area for visual information.
Define the Parietal Lobe.
Processes somatic sensations.
Define the Frontal Lobe.
Largest lobe processes voluntary muscles movements and is involved in muscle movements and thinking, planning, and emotional control.