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46 Cards in this Set

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Define Stress.
A negative emotional state that occurs in response to events that are taxing, or events that exceed a person's resources, or ability to cope.
How did early stress researchers define stress?
In terms of the phsycological response to harmful or threatening events.
Whether we experience stress depends on.....
...our cognitive appraisal of an event and the resources we have to deal with the event.
Define Health Psychology.
The branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illnessm medical treatment, and health-related behaviors.
Define the Biopsychosocial model (what health psychologists are guided by).
The belief that physical health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors.
Define Stressors.
Events or situations that are precieved as harmful, threatening, or challenging.
Name 2 early stress researchers and what did they develop/what did it do?
-Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe.
-Developed the Social Adjustment Rating Scale which was an attempt to measure the amount of stress people experienced.
What did Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe believe?
They believed that any change, whether postive or negative that required you to adjust your behavior or lifestyle would cause stress.
Name some common sources of stress.
life events and change, daily hassles, social and cultural, and conflict.
Define Daily Hassles.
Everyday minor events that annoy and upset people.
What did stress researcher Richard Lazarus suspect?
Supspected that daily hassles were an important source of stress.
What is the freqency of daily hassles linked to?
Both psychological and physical symptoms.
What are some social factors that are a source of stress?
-Crime
-Poverty
-Crowding
-Unemployment
-Racism
-Discrimination
When people live in a stressful environment they often experience...
Chronic Stress.
Who tends to have the highest levels of psychological distress, illness, and death?
People that live in the lowest socioeconomic situations.
How is stress related to culture?
Stress can be caused when cultures clash or when a person is adopting to a new culture.
Define Acculturative Stress.
The stress that results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture.
Define Conflict.
A situation in which a person feels pulled between two or more opposing desires, motives, or goals.
What are the 3 basic types of conflict?
1-Approach-Approach conflict
2-Avoidance-Avoidance conflict
3-Approach-Avoidance conflict


-Each of these has a different potential to produce stress
Descibe Approach-Approach conflict.
Represents a win-win situation where you are faced with a choice between 2 equally appealling outcomes.

-Easy to resolve
Describe Avoidance-Avoidance conflict.
Choosing between 2 unappealing or undesireable outcomes.
Describe Approach-Avoidance conflict.
A goal has both desirable and undesirable aspects.
What 2 people demonstrated the effects of stress on physical health?
-Walter Cannon
-Hans Selye
In what 2 ways does stress undermine physical well being/health?
1-Indirectly (prompting behaviors that jepordize physical well being such as not eating or sleeping right.

2-Directly (by altering body functions leading to symptoms, illness or disease.
Define the Fight-or-Flight Response.
A rapidly occuring chain of internal physical reactions that prepare people either to fight or take flight from an immediate threat.
Who came up with the Fight or Flight response and what else did he discover?
-Walter Cannon.
-Discovered that both the Sympathetic nervous system and the Endocrine system are invloved with the fight or flight response.
Define Catecholamines.
Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that causes rapid psychological arousal; include adrenaline and noadrenaline.
Define General Adaptation System.
Selye's term for the three-stage progression of physical changes that occur when an organism is exposed to intense and prolonged stress, there are 3 stages.
What are the 3 stages of the general adaptation system.
1-Alarm Stage (intense arousal from the demands of a stress producing event)
2-Resistance Stage (the body tries to resist a stressful situation)
3-Exhaustion Stage (symptoms of the alarm stage reappear and the body's energy becomes depleted causing exhaustion)
Define Corticosteriods.
Hormones released by the adrenal cortex that play a key role in the body's respons to long term stressors.
Define the Immune System.
Body system that produces white blood cells that protect the body from bacteria, viruses, and tumor cells.
Define Lymphocetes.
Specialized white blood cells that are responsible for immune defenses.
What 2 people helped develop Psychoneuroimmunology?
Psychologist Robert Ader and immunologist Nicolas Cohen.
Define Psychoneuroimmunology.
An interdisciplinary field that studies the connection between psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system.
What are the 3 main findings of psychoneuroimmunology.
1-The central nervous system and the immune system are linked by the sympathetic nervous system.
2-Lymphocytes contain receptor sites for neurotransmitters and hormones.
3-Lymphocytes produce neurotransmitters and hormones which influence the nervous and endocrine systems.
Psychological factors that influence responses to a stressful event.....:
-person's appraisal of the event and their resources for coping with it.
-Having a sense of control over the situation
-Being able to take steps to minimize/avoid the stressor.
Define Optimistic Explanatory Style.
Accounting for negative events or situations with external, unstable, and specific explanations.
Define Pessimistic Explanatory Style.
Acounting for negative events or situations with internal, stable, and global explanations.
What are 2 effects of chronic negative emotions?
1- People who are always anxious, depressed, angry, and hositle are likely to develop chronic diseases (heart disease, arthritis)

2-People who are tense, angry, and unhappy experience more stress than happier people.
Define Type A Personality behavior.
Behavior and emotional style characterized by time urgency, hostility, and competitiveness.
Explain Type B personality beahvior.
laid back
easy going
not associated with heart disease.
Defin Social Support.
The resources provided by other people in times of need.
Define Coping.
Behavioral and cognitive responses used to deal with stressors; involves our own efforts to change circumstances to make them more favorable.
What 2 psychologists named 2 types of coping and what were they?
-Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman
1-Problem-focused coping
2-Emotion-focused coping.
Define Problem-focused coping.
Coping efforts aimed at changing/managing a threantening/harmful stressor.
Define Emotion-focused coping.
Coping efforts aimed at releiving or regulating the emotional impact of a stressful situation.