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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Classical Conditioning?
Classical Conditioning considers the learning of associations between stimuli and responses. A Stimulus comes to elicit a response that it does not normally elicit.
What is operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning considers the learning of associations between behaviors and their consequences. Cats in crates.
what is semantic conditioning?
Using words as a stimulus in classical conditioning.
What is conditioned taste aversion?
The classical conditioning of an aversion to a taste that has been associated with a noxious stimulus. Chemotherapy & Mapletoff.
What is the law of effect?
A behavior, followed by a "satisfying" state of affairs is strengthened and a behavior followed by an "annoying" state of affairs is weakened.
What is instrumental conditioning?
The process by which behaviors are instrumental in producing certain consequences. SKinner called this operant conditioning because people learn to "operate" on the environment to produce desired consequences, instead of just responding reflexively as in classical conditioning.
What are behavioral contingences?
positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction and punishment.
What is positive reinforcement?
a behavior that is followed by the presentation of a desired stimulus becomes more likely to occur in the future.
What is the Premack Principle?
A behavior that has a higher probablility of occurrence can be used as a positive reinforcer for a behavior that has a lower probability .
What is a primary reinforcer?
one that is biological and unlearned: oxygen, water, food, warmth and sleep.
What is a secondary reinforcer? AKA conditioned reinforced
one that is learned and becomes reinforcing by being associated with a primary reinforcer. powerful secondary reinforcers are praise, money and power.
What is shaping?
Animal trainers rely on this technique to get them to perform actions that they would rarely or never perform. In shaping, the individual is reinforced for successive approximations of the target behavior and eventually reinforced for the target behavior itself.
What is a continuous schedule of reinforcement?
every instance of a desired behavior is reinforced. a rat in a skinner box that gets food each time it presses a lever. vending machines.
What is a partial schedule of reinforcement?
reinforcement that is given for only some instances of a desired behavior. they are divided into fixed ratio & variable ratio.
What are fixed ratio and variable ratio schedule of reinforcement.
Fixed ratio provides reinforecemnt after a specific number of desired responses. a variable ratio provides reinforcement after an unpredictable number of desired responses. the number of responses will vary around an average. gambling- this is why gamblers find it so hard to quit--they know they will eventually receive positive reinforcement, though they do no know when.
What are fixed interval & variable schedules of reinforcement?
fixed- reinforcement of the first desired repsonse after a set period of time. variable- provides reinforcement for the first desired response made after varying periods of time which vary around an average.
What is negative reinforcement?
behavior that brings about the removal of an aversive stimulus becomes more likely to occur in the future.
What is escape learning?
Learning to end something aversive. because daydreaming lets you escape from boring lectures, you are likely to daydream whenever you find yourself listening to one.
What is avoidance learning?
Learning to prevent something aversive. you can avoid the sound of a warning buzzer by buckling up before you start up your car.
What is positive punishment? What is negative punishment?
positive- punishment decreases the probability of a behavior by presenting something undesirable. negative- punishment that decreases the probability of a behavior by removing something desirable.
What are flashbulb memories?
vivid, long-lasting memories of important, suprising, emotionally arousing events are called flashbulb memories.
What is sensory memory?
sensory memory stores, in sensory registers, exact replicas of stimuli impinging the senses. sensory memories last for a very brief period, only a few seconds.
What is short-term memory?
when you attend to informaiton in sensory memory, it is transferred to short-term memory.
What is long-term memory?
information transferred from short-term memory into long-term memory can be stored for up to a lifetime.
What is iconic memory?
visual sensory memory.
What is echoic memory?
auditory sensory memory.
What is maintenance rehearsal?
simply holding information in short-term memory without trying to transfer it into long-term memory.
What is elaborative rehearsal?
actively organizing information and integrating it with information already stored in long-term memory.
What is procedural memory?
Includes memories of how to perform behaviors.
What is declarative memory?
memories of facts. both semantic & episodic. semantic- includes memories of general knowledge. episodic- includes memories of personal experiences tied to particular times and places.
What is the serial-position effect?
Immediate recall is worse for items in the middle of a list than those in the beginning and end of a list. The better memory for items at the beginning of a list is called the primacy effect, and the better memory for items at the end of a list is called the recency effect.
What is the method of savings?
What is contact-dependent memory?
the tendency for recall is best when the environmental context present during the encoding of a memory is also present during attempts of retrieval.
What is state-dependent memory?
The effect on recall of the similarity between a person's state during encoding and during retrieval.
What is retinal disparity? binocular cue
the degree of difference between the images of an object that are focused on the two retinas.
What is convergence? binocular cue
the degree to which the eyes turn inward to focus on an object.
What is accomodation? monocular cue
change in the shape of the lens to help focus the image of an object on the retina.
What is motion parallax? monocular cue
the tendency to perceive ourselves as passing objects faster when they are closer to us than when they are farther away.
What are pictorial cues? monocular cues
help create depth in drawing s and paintings. interposition, relative size, linear perspective, elevation, shading patterns, aerial perspective, and texture gradient.