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47 Cards in this Set

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Review the definitions and objectives of abnormal psychology.
the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning.
What are the common features of abnormal psychology?
The 4 D’s
Deviance- different, extreme, unusual
Distress-unpleasant & upsetting
Dysfunction-causes interference with life
Danger-poses risk of harm
deviance
from what?
1. from behaviors, thoughts and emotions
2. from social norms
-stated and unstated rules for proper conduct in a given society or culture
distress
according to many clinical guidelines behavior must be personally distressing before it can be labeled abnormal
dysfunction
-abnormal behavior tends to be dysfunctional- it interferes with daily functioning
-culture has influence on determinations of dysfunction as well
- dysfunction alone does not mean abnormality
danger
-abnormal behavior may become dangerous to oneself or others
-although cited as a feature of psychological abnormality, dangerousness is an exception rather than a rule
Define treatment in abnormal psychology?
treatment (therapy) is a procedure to change abnormal behavior into more normal abnormal psychology behavior.
what are the essential features of treatment?
1. a sufferer who seeks RELIEF from the healer
2. a trained, SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE healer, whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer and his or her social group
3. A series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer, through which the healer tries to PRODUCE CERTAIN CHANGES in the sufferer's emotional state, attitudes, and behavior
2. What are the 6 major paradigms (schools of thought) for understanding abnormal psychology? Know the difference between the different schools of thought in ab psych (cognitive vs. psychodynamic theory etc., and the individuals associated with each school).
Psychoanalytic
biological
behavioral
cognitive
humanistic-existential
sociocultural
No one perspective dominates.
psychoanalytic
look up
biological
look up
behavioral
look up
cognitive
look up
humanistic-existential
look up
sociocultural
look up
Within the context of the history of abnormal Psych: What was the supernatural perspective? Who conceived the notion of ill humors and what did having an ill humor mean? What was the psychogenic perspective? What was moral therapy?
look up
Know the difference between operant and classical conditioning
operant- organism "operates" on environment and produces an effect. humans and animals learn to behave in certain ways as a result of receiving REWARDS whenever they do so

classical- learning by TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION. father ivan pavlov. when two events repeatedly occur close together in tim, they become fused in a person's mind; before long, the person responds in the same way to both events.
What were Freud’s contributions to the study of ab psych?
the psychodynamic model
-the oldest and most famous psychological model
- based on the belief that a person's behavior is determined largely by underlying DYNAMIC psychological forces OF WHICH ONE IS NOT AWARE OF
-abnormal symptoms are the result of conflict among these forces
What are the defense mechanisms from psychodynamic theory? Be able to apply them
caused by 3 UNCONSCIOUS forces
1. ID- guided by the PLEASURE principle
2. ego- guided by the REALITY principle
3. super ego- guided by the MORALITY principle
What did Freud believe (how did he explain it) was the cause of Ab psych?
freud proposed that at each stage of development, new events and pressures require adjustment in the id, ego, and superego
if successful= personal growth
if unsuccessful= fixation at an early developmental stage, leading to psychological abnormality
- because parents are the key figures in early life, they are often seen as the cause of improper development
Know the diathesis stress model (in your text).
get book
Know the difference btwn. prevalence and incidence of a psychological disorder.
prevalence- how many people in a population as a whole have a disorder?
incidence- how many new cases of a disorder occur within a given time?
What is the purpose of research in abnormal psychology?
Clinical researchers attempt to examine which concepts and theories best explain and predict abnormal behavior, which treatments are most effective, and what kinds of changes may be required
What are the limitations of case studies, correlational studies and experimental studies?(text)
get book
What features guard against confounds?(text)
get book
What are some alternative experimental designs? Why would you use a quasi experiment?(text)
get book
What is the focus of the biological perspective?
psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of the organism
typically focused on the brain
Know how hormones and neurotransmitters are related to abnormal behaviors?
can cause depression or anxiety
abnormal secretions of hormones have been linked to psychological disorders
Know the three kinds of biological treatments?
drug therapy
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
psychosurgery
What is the purpose of assessments and classifications?
assessment- the collecting of relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion. a clinical assessment is used to determine how and why a person is behaving abnormally and how that person my be helped.
-classification- lists of categories, disorders, and symptom descriptions, with guidelines for assignment. focus on clusters of symptoms(syndromes)
What is the focus of the behavioral school of thought?
modeling
How does modeling explain abnormal functioning?
individuals learn behavioral responses by observing and repeating behavior
NO DIRECT REINFORCEMENT
How do cognitive and sociocultural theorists explain abnormal functioning?
cognitive- maladaptive THINKING is the cause of maladaptive BEHAVIOR
-sociocultural- family structure and communication
-family systems theory= abnormal functioning within family leads to abnormal behavior
Know the three categories into which clinical assessments fall.
clinical interviews
tests
observations
What are the three kinds of clinical observations?
naturalistic
analog
self-monitoring
What are the characteristics of assessment tools?
to be useful, assessment tools must be STANDARDIZED and have clear RELIABILITY and VALIDITY
Recognize the names of the personality tests, projective tests, and neuropsychological batteries and the categories to which they belong.
personality- designed to measure broad personality. most widely used is mmpi
projective- tests strengths and weaknesses not reliable or valid, may be biased against minority groups.
neuropsychological batteries- DIRECTLY asses brain function by assessing brain structure and activity. INDIRECTLY assess brain function.
What are the 5 aspects of the mental status exam?
find it
What is the purpose of clinical interviews? How are they carried out? What affects the focus of the interview?
-used to collect detailed information, especially personal history, about a client
-can either be STRUCTURED or UNSTRUCTURED
-theoretical orientation affects the focus
What are the most commonly used classification systems? What are the characteristics of the classification system discussed in class?
-DSM-5-TR
-axis 1-5
axis 1
Most frequently diagnosed disorders except personality disorders and mental retardation
axis 2
personality disorders and mental retardation
-long-standing problems- improvement is possible
axis 3
relevant general medical conditions that affect mental health
axis 4
psychosocial and environmental problems
-poverty, divorce, lead neighborhood ETC
axis 5
global assessment of psychological, social, and occupational functioning
-current functioning and highest functioning in past year 0-100 scale
What are the impacts of labeling a person with a disorder?
also present is the issue of LABELING & STIGMA
-diagnosis my be a self-fulfilling prophecy
Review incidence and prevalence
i think this one is covered