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9 Cards in this Set

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Groups
The Mere Presence of Others

Norman Triplett? (2)
1. noticed cyclist performed better when paced by other riders than when racing alone against clock
("presence of another rider is a stimulus to the racer in arousing the competitive instinct"
Groups
The Mere Presence of Others

Conducted his own study? (3)
1. Had neighborhood kids wind up fishing reels as fast as they could.

2. Somethings alone; sometimes in pairs

3. Winding times were faster in pairs
Groups
The Mere Presence of Others

Social Facilitation?
The mere presence of others can enhance task performance
Groups
The Mere Presence of Others

Social inhibition?
The mere presence of others can also impair task performance
Groups
The Mere Presence of Others
(Robert Zajonc)

Developed an elegant theory? (3)
1. the mere presence of other s triggers a state of arousal

2. arousal facilitates dominant (simple, well-learned)

3. inhibiting non-dominant (difficult, unfamiliar) behaviors
Groups
The Mere Presence of Others
(Robert Zajonc)

Competing explanation? (6)
1. Performance apprehension(anxiety)

2. an audience arouses the competitive instinct

3. Used cockroaches to test his theory

4. Cockroaches don't experience performance apprehension

5. Cockroaches don't grandstand for other cockroaches

6. Using cockroaches allowed him to rule out (control for) these alternative causes
Groups
The Mere Presence of Others
(Robert Zajonc)

Four conditions?
1. Simple Maze, No Audience

2. Simple Maze, Audience

3. Complex Maze, No Audience

4. Complex Maze, Audience
Groups
The Mere Presence of Others
(Robert Zajonc)

Findings? (2)
1. In the simple maze, they did better when they had an audience

2. In the complex maze, they did better when they did not have an audience.
Groups
The Mere Presence of Others
(Robert Zajonc)

Conclusion? (3)
1. These findings generalize to humans

2. When there is an audience, behavior is more automatic (culturally determined)

3. More comfortable trying new things when not being observed.