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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a person's awareness of everything that is going on around him/her at any given moment
state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear, organized, and the person feels alert
waking consciousness
state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compare to waking consciousness
altered state of consciousness
a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24 hour period
circadian rhythm
brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds
any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability
sleep deprivation
theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active
adaptive theory
theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage
restorative theory
allows scientists to see the brain wave activity as a person passes through the various stages of sleep and to determine what type of sleep the person has entered
electroencephalograph (EEG)
brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep
alpha waves
brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep
theta waves
long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep
delta waves
stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream
rapid eye movement (REM)
light sleep, theta waves
non-REM stage one
sleep spindles (brief bursts of activity only lasting a second or two)
non-REM stage two
delta waves pronounced
non-REM stages three and four
when 50%+ of waves are delta waves
deep sleep
vivid visual events
hypnogogic images
body jerks
hypnic jerk
occuring during deep sleep, an episode of moving around or walking around in one's sleep
sleepwalking (somnambulism)
relatively rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully
night terrors
paradoxical sleep (high level of brain activity)
REM sleep
if wakened during REM sleep, almost always report having ________
a dream
increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights
REM rebound
bad dreams occuring during REM sleep
a rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares
REM behavior disorder
the inability to get sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep
disorder in which a person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more
sleep apnea
a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning
sudden loss of muscle tone
_______ thought that dreams were wish fulfillments
the actual dream itself
manifest content
the true, hidden meaning of a dream
latent content
dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the activation by the brain stem of cortical cells during REM sleep periods
activation-synthesis hypothesis
revised version of the activation-synthesis-information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams
activation-information-mode model (AIM)
state of consciousness in which the person in especially succeptible to suggestion
drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory
psychoactive drugs
more and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same effect
physical symptoms that include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure; resulting from lack of an addictive drug in the body system
the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being
psychological dependence
two basic ways drugs effect neurotransmitters
mimic or enhance the action of neurotransmitters
reduce the actions of neurotransmitters
drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system
natural drug; produces euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure
active ingredient in tobacco
the stimulant found in coffee, tea, most sodas, chocolate, and even many over-the-counter drugs.
drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system
depressant drugs that have a sedative effect
drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress
the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter
a class of opium-related drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous systems natural receptor sites for endorphins
substance deprived from the opium poppy from which all narcotic drugs are derived
narcotic drug derived from opium, used to treat severe pain
narcotic drug derived from opium that is severely addictive
drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinogens or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication
psychogenic drugs
drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality
powerful synthetic hallucinogen
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
synthesized druh now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects
designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects
MDMA (ecstacy or x)
mild hallucinogen derived from the leaves and flowers of a particaular type of hemp plant