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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Correlation Coefficient
A mathematical expression of the relationship between two variables
Culture
The beliefs, customs, habits, and language shared by the people living in a particular time and place
Debriefing
A discussion of procedures, hypotheses, and participant reactions at the completion of the study
Demand Characteristic
Cue that makes participants aware of how the experimenter expects them to behave
Dependent Variable
The variable measured by the experimenter
Descriptive Method
Procedure for measuring or recording behaviors, thoughts, and feelings in their natural state (including naturalistic observations, case studies, archival studies, and surveys
Evolutionary Perspective
A theoretical viewpoint that searches for the causes of social behavior in the physical and psychological predispositions that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce
Experiement
A research method in which the researcher sets out to systematically manipulate one source of influence while holding others constant
Experimental Method
Procedure for uncovering causal processes by systematically manipulating soe aspect of a situation
External Validity
The extent to which the results of an experiement can be generalized to other circumstances
Field Experimentation
The manipulation of independent variables using unknowing praticipants in natural settings
Generalizability
The extent to which the findings of a particular research study extend to other similar circumstances or cases
Hypothesis
A researcher's prediction about what he or she will find
Independent Variable
The variable manipulated by the experimenter
Internal Validity
The extent to which an experiment allows confident statements about cause and effect
Natural Selection
The process by which characteristics the help animals survive and reproduce are passed on to their offspring
Naturalistic Observation
Recording everyday behaviors as they unfold in their natural settings
Observer bias
Error introduced into measurement when and observer overemphasizes behaviors he or she expects to find and fails to notice behaviors he or she does not expect
Person
Features or characteristics that individuals carry into social situations
Psychological Test
Instument for assessing a person's abilities, cognitions, motivations, or behaviors
Random Assignment
The practice of assigning articipants to treatments so each person has an equal chance of being in any condition
Reliability
The consistency of the score yielded by a psychological test
Representative sample
a group of respondencts having characteristics that match those of the larger population the researcher wants to describe
Situation
Environmental events or circumstances outside the person
Social Cognitive perspective
a theoretical viewpoint that focuses on the mental processes involved in paying attention to, interpreting, and remembering social experiences
Social desirability bias
the tendency for people to say what they believe is appropriate or acceptable
Social learning perspective
a theoretical viewpoint that focuses on past learning experiences as determinants of a person's social behaviors
Social Norm
a rule or expectation appropriate social behavior
Social Psychology
The scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by other people
Sociocultural Perspective
The theoretical viewpoint that searches for the causes of social behavior in influences from larger social groups
Survey method
A technique in which the researcher asks people to report on their beliefs, feelings, or behaviors
Theory
Scientific explanation that connects and organizes existing observations and suggests fruitful paths for future research
Validity
the extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure
Adaptation
A characteristic that is well designed for survival and reproduction in a particular environment
Archival Method
Examination of systematic data originally collected for other purposes (such as marriage licences of arrest records)
Case Study
an intensive examination of an individual or group
Confound
a variable yhat systematically changes along with the independent variable, potentially leading to a mistaken conclusion about the effect of the independent variable
Correlation
the extent to which two or more variables are associated with one another