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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are psychology's four goals?
Description
explanation
prediction
change
Who are the key figures for structuralism, and what does structuralism have for a goal?
Wundt, Titchener; to identify the elements of mental processes.
Who are the key figures for functionalism, and what was it's main influencing point?
William James; Darwin's theory of evolution.
Who are the key figures in the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective?
Freud, Jung, Adler, and Erikson
How do you become aware of the unconscious?
hypnosis, dream analysis, observation, and psychoanalysis.
What popular case study is associated with the Psychoanalytic perspective?
Freud's "Little Hans" case.
Who are the major figures associated with the Behavior Perspective?
Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, and Skinner.
According to the Behavior perspective, what determines the behavior through conditioning?
Environment.
What popular case study is associated with the behavioral perspective?
Watson's "Little Albert" case.
Who are the key figures in the Humanist perspective?
Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslov.
What does the humanist perspective emphasize?
free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking.
What does the socio-cultural perspective emphasize?
differences and similarities in thinking and behavior in different cultural and social settings.
Which perspective is the newest perspective?
The Evolutionary Perspective.
What is the Evolutionary Perspective's main emphasis?
survival of the fittest.
What are the three research methods?
Experimental,
Descriptive
Co-relational
What are two types of statistics?
Descriptive
Inferential
What are the three measures of descriptive statistics?
Measures of Central Tendency
measures of variability
co-relation coefficient.
What are the three measures of central tendency?
Median
mode
mean
what are the three measures of variation?
range
standard deviation
frequency distribution
What are the three elements of thinking?
Thinking is biased
thinking is heuristic
thinking is fallible.
What are the four steps of problem solving?
Interpretation/representation of problem

retrieve answer

retrieve appropriate algorithm

retrieve heuristic and execute
What is the heuristic?
a "rule of thumb" mindset.
what is meta-analysis?
statistical procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies.
what is the difference between random sampling and random assignment?
Random sampling has to do with who takes part in the experiment, random assignment has to do with which experimental group each participant is assigned to.
What are the three C words of psychological hardiness?
Challenge
Control
Commitment
What are the three characteristics of a good test?
reliability
validity
standardization
what are the three elements of reliability?
test-retest reliability
alternative form reliability
internal consistency
what are the two elements of validity?
content validity
criterion-related (predictive) validity.
what are four standardized tests?
WAIS
WISC
Stanford-Binet
SAT