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161 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology
study of behavior and mental processes
Behavior
acny action that people can observe
Cognitive Activities
mental processes
Psychological Contructs
cannot measure directly
Theory
attempts to explain things
Principle
rule or law
Basic Research
done for own sake
Introspection
"looking within"
Association
things remind us of the past
Psychodynamic Thinking
unconscious impulses
Social-Learning Theory
change environment
Ethnic Group
group united by cultural heritage
Construct
assumed present, not measured directly
Hypothesis
educated guess
Replicated
repeated, produce same results
Survey
people respond to series of questions
Target Population
people you want to study
Sample
part of target population
Random Sample
selected by chance
Stratified Sample
people represented proportionally
Bias
predisposition of point of view
Volunteer Bias
different outlok than those that don't volunteer
Correlation
measure how close one thing is to another
Positive Correlation
both go up on graph
Negative Correlation
one up, one down on graph
Experiment
answer questions about cause and effect
Variables
changeable factors
Independent Variable
manipulated information
Dependent Variable
depends on manipulated information
Experimental Group
recieve treatment
Control Group
do not reciev treatment
Controlled Experiment
use both experimental and control groups
Placebo
no effect, belief in it
Stadard Deviation
measure distance to mean
Ethics
standards of behavior
Informed Consent
agree to participate in survey
Neurons
nerve cells that run through the entire body
Neurotransmitters
chemicals in sacs on axon terminals
Association Areas
information is turned into something meaningful
Endocrine System
glands that secrete hormones
Hormones
stimulate growth
Heredity
transmission of characteristics from parents to their children
Genes
basic building blocks of heredity
Chromosomes
threadlike structures of DNA
Gate Theory
certain amount of info processed
Complementary
colors arcross from each other on color wheel
Kinethesis
sense that informs you of the position and motion of the body
Vestibular Sense
tells you if you're up or down without your eyes
Absolute Threshold
weakest amount of stimlus
Difference Threshold
minimum amount of difference between two stimuli
Conductive Deafness
damage to middle ear
Sensorial Deafness
damage to inner ear
Sensation
stimulation or transmission of stimulus to central nervous system
Perception
psychological process which interprets sensational stimulus
Afterimage
the complementary colors left behind
Visual Acuity
sharpness of vision
Hypnosis
altered state of consciousness, trance-like state
Circadian Rhythm
biological clocks
Insomnia
inability to sleep
Meditation
method to eliminate stress
Biofeedback
"feeds back" information into the body
Stimulus
something that produces a reaction
Response
reaction to a stimulus
Conditioning
learning
Classical Conditioning
simple learning, stimulus calls for a response
Taster Aversion
learned avoidance of a particular food
Extinction
lose the ability to bring a conditioning response
Spontaneous Recovery
display extinguised responses
Generalization
responding the same way to different stimuli
Discrimination
responding differently to different stimuli
Flooding
exposed to harmless fear until no longer affraid
Systematic Desensitization
taught relaxation techniques to cope with fear
Counterconditioning
pleasent stimulus with a fearful one
Operant Conditioning
learn to do certain things
Reinforcement
stimulus inscreases chances of behavior occuring
Shaping
teaching complex behaviors, reinforce small steps
Latent Learning
information that is hidden until needed
Observational Learning
learn by oberving and imitating
Memory
process by which we recollect prior experiences
Encoding
translation of info in order to be stored
Storage
maintenance of encoded information over time
Maintenance Rehearsal
repeating over and over again
Elaborative Rehearsal
relating to informationg that is already stored
Retrieval
locating information already stored
Eidetic Imagery
ability to remember visual stimuli
Primary Effect
recall initial items in series
Regency Effect
recall last items in series
Chunking
organizing information into manageable units
Interference
new info takes place of whats already there
Schemas
mental representations
Recognition
recognizing images already seen
Recall
bring it back to mind
Relearning
able to relearn quickley because was already taught information
Decay
the fading away of memory
Maturation
process of genetic development
Critical Period
stage when best suited to learn
Relfex
involuntary reaction of response
Infancy
period from birth to two years old
Childhood
two years old to adolescence
Imprinting
form immediate attachments
Authoritative
warmth and postive stictness (parenting style)
Authoritarian
obedience for its own sake
Assimilation
new information into categories
Accommodation
change because of new information
Conservation
properties same if arrangement changes
Egocentrism
can't seen another person's point of view
Puberty
changes lead to ability to reproduce
Clique
5-10 people whoe spend time together
Crowd
large group who share attitudes and identity
Anxiety
general state of dread
Phobia
"fear" of imagined danger
Simple Phobia
fear of object or situation
Social Phobia
fear of social situations
Panic Attack
period of intense fear and discomfort
Obsession
unwanted thoughts over and over again
Compulsion
repetitives rituals
Dissociation
seperation of perionality traits
Depersonalization
detachment from one's self
Somatization
destress through physical symptoms
Depression
feelings of helplessness, guilt, and sadness
Bipolar Disorder
intense mood swings
Mania
extreme excitement to sadness for no reason
Schizophrenia
loss of contact with reality
Catatonic Stupor
comma-like state
Psychopath
do not understand right from wrong
Sociopath
understand right from wrong, but still act wrongfully
Pituitary Gland
pea size, master gland, secretes hormones, milk in women
Thyroid Gland
effects metabolism, excitablility, weight changes
Adrenal Gland
resistance to stress, intensifies emotions
Testes
male, muscle, beard, sex drive
Ovaries
felmale, breasts, menstrual cycle
Beta Waves
short brain waves while awake, relax and become drowsy
Alpha Waves
slower, feelings of falling of flashes of color
Alpha-Theta Waves
brief images in dreams, 30-40 minutes, remember
Delta Waves
hard to wake up, 90 minutes
Closure
tendency to percieve whole picture when their are gaps
Figure-Ground
perception of figures against a background
Proximity
nearness of lines to each other
Similarity
think of similar objects belonging together in a group
Continuity
like to see smooth patterns, not disrupted ones
Common Fate
objects that move together, belong together
Amphetamines
speed, cocaine
Hallucinagins
lsd, marijuana
Depressants
alcohol, narcotics
Stimulants
nicotine, cocaine
Moratorium
delay decision making
Achievement
cope with crisis
Forclosure
commit to things that close doors
Diffusion
search for the meaning of life
Episodic
specific event
Semantic
general knowledge
Explicit
clearly stated
Implicit
not clearly stated, implied
Flashbulb
important events, remember every detail
Context-Dependent
come back when in certain place
State-Dependent
retrieved because of mood you're in
Sensory
immediate, initial recording of information
Iconic
brief, snapshots of information
Echoic
mental traces of sound
Long-Term
information you known, been there long time
Short-Term
know for a brief period of time