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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Empirical –
Relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.
Psychology –
discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.
“Psychobabble” –
Pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific-sounding language.
Critical Thinking –
The ability ad willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote.
Occam’s razor –
Choosing the one explanation of a phenomenon that accounts for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions.
Phrenology –
We now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be “read” from bumps on the skull.
Wilhelm Wundt –
He was trained in medicine and philosophy, wrote many volumes on psychology, physiology, natural history, ethics and logic. He was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science. Established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. It was the first lab to have its results published in a scholarly journal.
Structuralism –
An early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements.
Functionalism –
An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness.
William James –
A leader of functionalism, an American philosopher, physician, and psychologist who argued that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time.
Charles Darwin –
A British naturalist who created the evolutionary theories. He believed in evolution, and survival of the fittest. He inspired the functionalists.
Sigmund Freud –
He believed that people’s distress was due to conflicts and emotional traumas that had occurred in early childhood and that were too threatening to be remembered consciously. He believed that the unconscious part of the mind contained unrevealed wishes, passions, guilty secrets, unspeakable yearnings and conflicts between desire and duty. He believed they were either sexual or aggressive.
Psychoanalysis –
A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.
Biological perspective –
A Psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
Evolutionary psychology –
Fields of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior.
Learning perspective –
A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person’s or animal’s actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories.
Behaviorists –
Focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors. They do not invoke the mind or mental states to explain behavior.
Social-cognitive learning theorists –
Combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions.
Cognitive perspective –
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory language, problem solving and other areas of behavior.
Sociocultural perspective –
A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior.
Social psychologists –
Focuses on social rules and roles, how groups affect attitudes and behavior, why people obey authority, and how each of us is affected by other people—spouses, lovers, friends, bosses, parents, and strangers
Cultural psychologists –
Examine how cultural rules and values – both spoken and unspoken – affect people’s development, behavior, and feelings.
Psychodynamic perspective –
A psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy.
Humanist psychology –
A psychological approach that emphasizes free will, personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential.
Feminist psychology –
A psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes.
Psychological practice –
providing health or mental health services
Basic psychology –
The study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application.
Applied psychology –
The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings.
Experimental psychologists –
Conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition.
Educational psychologists –
Study psychological principles that explain learning and search for ways to improve educational systems. Their interests range from the application of findings on memory and thinking to the use of rewards to encourage achievement.
Developmental psychologists –
Study how people change and grow over time – physically, mentally, and socially. In the past, their focus was mainly on childhood, but many now study adolescence, young adulthood, the middle years, or old age.
Industrial/organizational psychologists –
Study behavior in the workplace. They are concerned with group decision making, employee morale, work motivation, productivity, job stress, personnel selection, marketing strategies, equipment design, and many other issues.
Psychometric psychologists –
Design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality. Nearly all of us have had firsthand experience with one or more of these tests in school, at work, or in the military.
Counseling psychologist –
Practitioners who generally help people deal with problems of everyday life, such as test anxiety, family conflicts, or low job motivation.
School psychologist –
Work with parents, teachers and students to enhance students’ performance and resolve emotional difficulties.
Clinical psychologists –
Diagnose, treat, and study mental or emotional problems. They are trained to do psychotherapy with severely disturbed people, as well as with those who are simply troubled or unhappy or who want to learn to handle their problems better.
Psychotherapist –
Anyone who does any kind of psychotherapy. May have anything from no degree to an advanced professional degree; the term is unregulated.
Psychoanalyst –
Practices psychoanalysis. They must get specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute and undergo extensive psychoanalysis themselves. They may treat any kind of emotional disorder or pathology.
Psychiatrist –
Has a medical degree (M.D.) with a specialty in psychiatry. They do similar work to that of a clinical psychologist but are more likely to take a more biological approach.