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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the scientific study of behavior
An approach to psychology that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a "whole" sense rather than on the individual elements of perception
Gestalt psychology
The approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functions.
Neuroscience perspective
The approach based on the belief that behavior is motivated by uncounsious inner forces over which the individual has little control.
Psychodynamic perspective
The approach that suggests that observable behavior should be the focus of study.
Behavioral perspective
The approach that focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world.
Cognitive perspective
The aproach that suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior
Humanistic perspective
The approach through which psychologists systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest
Scientific Methos
A prediction, stemming, from a theory, stated in a way that allows it to be tested
Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way.
Research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated, or "correlated."
Correlational Research
the investigation of the relationship between two (or more) variables by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation.
Any group participating in an experiment that receives a treatment
Experimental group
The variable that is manipulated by an experimenter
Independent Variable
The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the experimenter's manipulation of the independent variable
Dependent Variable
A document signed by participants affirming that they have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve.
Informed Consent
Factors that distort how the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experiment.
Experimetal bias
A false treatment, such as a pill, "drug," or other substance, without any sigificantchamical properties or active ingredient
Nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system
A cluster of fibers at one end or a neuron that receive messages from other neurons.
The part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons.
Small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons
Terminal buttons
A protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon.
Myelin Sheath
The space between two neurons where the axon of the sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neurons by using chemical messages
Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to dendrite(and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron
The part of the nervous system that includes the brain and the spinal cord
Central Nervous system
A bundle of nerves that leaves the brain and runs down the length of the back and is the main means for transmitting messages between the brain and the body
Spinal Cord
Automatic, involuntary responses to incoming stimuli
Neurons that transmit information from the perimiter of the body to the central nervous system
Neurons that communicate information from the nervous system to muscles and glands of the body
The part of the nervous system that includes the automatic and somatic subdivisions;made up of long axons and dendrites,it branches out from the spinal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body
Peripheral Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous syetm that specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs
Somatic Divisions
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary movement(the actions of the heart,glands,lungs,and other organs)
Autonomic division
The part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to prepare the body in stressful emergency situations, engaging all the organism's resources to respond to a threat
Sympathetic Division
The part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to calm the body after an emergency situation has been resolved
A chemical communication network that send messages throughout the body via the bloodstream
Endorcrine System
Chemicals that circulate through the blood and affect the functioning or growth of other parts of the body
The "master gland," the major component of the endocrine system, which secretes hormones that control growth
Pituitary Gland
The "old brain," which controls basic functions such as eating and sleeping
Central Core
The part of the brain that controls bodily balance
The part of the brain located outside the "new brain" that controls eating, aggression, and reproduction
Limbic System
The "new brain," responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain;contains the lobes
Cerebral Cortex
The four major sections of the cerebral cortex, frontal, parietel, temporalm and occipital
The part of the cortex that is largely responsible for the body's voluntary movement
Motor Area
The site in the brain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity relating to the amount of tissue
Sensory area