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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Perception
Turning the impulses into something
Feature Detection
Cells in our brain are sensitive to certain stimuli

Your brain registers a thousand tiny dots
Gestalt Theory of Perception
Figure and Ground (Reversible Figures)
Proximity
Similarity
Continuation
Closure
Movement
We perceive movement when an object moves relative to the background
Stroboscopic Movement
Illusion created by a rapid succession of stationary images (Cartoons)
Phi Effect
Illusion created when two or more lights blink on and off at regular intervals.
Binocular cues
Retinal Disparity
Convergence
Monocular cues
Object Size
Linear Perspective
Interposition
Detail
The Ames Room
Loudness
Determined by number of activated hair cells
Place Theory (Pitch)
We hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along basilar membrane.

High Pitch - Beginning
Low Pitch - End
Frequency Theory (Pitch)
The entire membrane vibrates and sens neural signals to the brain at the same frequency as the sound wave
Synesthesia
Experience two senses at the same time
CIPA
People who can not feel pain
Change Blindness
Large changes within visual scene undetected by viewer
Ivan Pavlov
Classical Conditioning (Dogs salivate)
Unconditioned Reflexes
A behavior that is automatically activated by a certain stimulus
Classical Conditioning
The learned association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned reflex
Acquisition (CC)
The process that establishes or strengthens a conditioned response
Extinction (CC)
The decrease in the conditioned response
Stimulus Generalization (CC)
Extension of a conditioned response from the training stimulus to similar stimuli
Discrimination (CC)
Different responses to two similar stimuli
Spontaneous Recovery (CC)
Temporary return of an extinguished response after a delay
Operant Conditioning
The process of changing behavior by following a response with a reinforcement or a punishment
Reinforcer
An event that follows a response and increases the frequency of that response
Primary Reinforcers
A reinforcer that is biologically pre-established to act as reinforcement (Food, water, and Sex)
Secondary Reinforcers
A stimulus that gains reinforcing properties because it is associated with a primary reinforcer (praise, grades, money, and feelings of success)
Positive Reinforcement
Giving them something good
Negative Reinforcement
Taking away something bad
Punishment
An event that decreases the probability of a response
Positive Punishment
Giving them something bad
Negative Punishment
Taking away something good
Extinction (OC)
Response doesn’t produce reinforcement
Stimulus Generalization (OC)
New stimulus similar to reinforcer will likely produce desired behavior
Stimulus Discrimination (OC)
If reinforcement occurs for responding to one stimuli but not another
Shaping of Behavior
Reinforcing successive approximations of the behavior you desire
Chaining
Reinforcing a behavior by the opportunity to engage in the next behavior
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcement for every correct response
Intermittent Reinforcement
Reinforcement for some responses but not others
Fixed-ratio Schedule
Reward only after a certain (fixed) number of correct responses
Variable-ratio Schedule
Reinforcement is given after a variable number of correct responses
Fixed-interval Schedule
Reinforcement for the first response made after a fixed time interval
Variable-Interval Schedule
Reinforcement after a variable amount of time has elapsed
Conditioned Taste Aversion
An association between eating (or drinking) something and getting sick
-The Coyote Study
-The Rat Study
Emotion
Feeling
Physiological correlates
Cognitions
Goals
James-Lange theory
Emotions are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological changes, rather than being their cause.

Negative emotions-Right frontal cortex
Positive emotions-Left frontal cortex
Cannon-Bard theory
Heart begins to pound as you have the emotion of fear
Two-factor theory
First-Physical arousal
Second-Cognitive label
Display Rules
Rules that govern how and when emotions are exibited
Facial Feedback
The facial expression corresponding to a particular emotion can make a person feel that emotion
Six Basic Emotions
happiness
sadness
anger
fear
surprise
disgust
Heuristics
A mental short cut
Representativeness Heuristic
If something resembles a category then it is probably a member of that category (Professor)

-Base rate information
Availability Heuristic
How easily something is recalled is an indication of how frequent it occurs (Disasters)
Confirmation Bias
Looking only for evidence to support a hypothesis (Arguments)
Functional Fixedness
The tendency to adhere to a single approach (9 dot problem)
The Barnum Effect
Belief in descriptions of themselves that are in fact vague enough to apply to almost everyone (Horoscopes)
Framing Effect
The tendency to answer a question differently based on how the question is phrased
Memory
Our ability to store and retrieve information
Sensory Memory
Echoic (Hear) sensory memory
Iconic (See) sensory memory
Short-term Memory Limitations
Duration (Few Seconds)
Capacity (7 +/- 2)
Increasing short-term memory capacity
Rehearsal
Deep processing
Chunking
Working memory
A system for processing or working with current information
Three Components of Working Memory
Phonological Loop
Visuospatial Sketchpad
Central Executive
Phonological Loop
Holding verbal information
Visuospatial Sketchpad
Holding visual and spacial information
Central Executive
Coordinating the brain activity and bringing new information into working memory from the sensory memory or long term memory stored
Long-term Memory
Duration- debatable

Capacity- relatively limitless

Consolidation- the movement of information into our long-term memory stores from our working memory
Explicit (Declarative) Long-term Memory
Knowing something and knowing that you know it

Semantic- General information
Episodic- Event in a person's life
Implicit (Procedural) Long-term Memory
Knowing something and not knowing that you know it

Skills-How to do something
Conditioning Associations- transfer between once representation and another
The Stroop effect
Processing Information Automatically

Sometimes we just can’t inhibit procedural memory

"Red" colored in Green
Associative Memories
Black man and positive word takes longer to respond than white man and positive word (implicit racism)
Priming Effect
Prior reaction to a stimulus inhibits new information
Getting Information into Long-Term Memory
Levels of processing
Spacing
Representational Modes
Mnemonic Devices
Levels of Processing (Long-Term Memory)
Putting it into context works best
Spacing (Long-Term Memory)
Information is recalled better when the information is rehearsed over longer intervals
Representation Modes (Long-Term Memory)
The more ways a memory can be encoded, the greater the likelihood it will be accessible for later retrieval.
Mnemonic Devices (Long-Term Memory)
Systematic strategies for remembering information

Method of Loci - Uses visual imagery as a memory aid
Peg Method - Use imagery and rhyme
SQ3R Method - Survey, Question, Read, Recite and Review
Spreading Activation
Activating one node in a network triggers activation in closely related nodes
Getting Information Out of Long-Term Memory
Recall: the ability to retrieve information not in conscious awareness.

Recognition: The ability to identify something you have previously learned.

Relearning: The amount of time saved when learning material for the second time.
Schemas
Patterns of thoughts, or organized knowledge structures, that render the environment relatively predictable
Context Effects
State Dependent Memory - Learning that takes place in one situation or "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar situation or state.
Decay Theory
When something new is learned, a neuro-chemical "memory trace" is formed, but over time this trace tends to fade due to disuse and low emotional value.
Proactive Interference
Old information interferes with retrieval of new information
Retroactive Interference
New information interferes with retrieval of old information
Improve Line-up Identifications
Tell the victim that the culprit may or may not be present.

Foils must fit with witness’ description of the perpetrator

Sequential line-ups are preferable to simultaneous line-ups
Sam Stone Study
Stereotype Condition
Suggestion Condition
Stereotype plus suggestion
Control
Sam Stone Questions
Who ripped the book (soiled the teddy bear)? -- Direct

Did you see him do it? -- Saw

You didn’t really see Sam do anything to the book did you? -- Maintained
Children as Witnesses
Younger children are more susceptible to suggestion than older children.

The use of suggestive interviewing techniques can lead to erroneous reports

Children are especially good at reporting on events that occurred to them and that are personally salient (e.g., genital touch)
Flashbulb memories
Permanent and vivid in mind