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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the two fields that psychology comes from?
1. philosophy
2. biology
what is psychology?
the science of behavior and mental processes
what are psychology's 3 big issues?
1. stability-change
2. rationality-irrationality
3. nature-nurture
who is the founder of psychology?
wilhem wundt
what is structuralism? and who came up with it?
you break the mind down into elemental parts. wilhem wundt
what is functionalism? and who came up with it?
1st american school of thought. james.
what is behaviorism?
study observable behavior
what did we learn from the clever hans story?
1. gullability and skepticism
2. need for careful observation and controlled conditions
3. observer-expectancy effects can hurt research
what is a theory?
interconnected set of ideas that organizes/links oberervations and predicts behavior/events
what's a theory?
puts a theory to the testt
what is nature vs. nurture?
controversey over genes vs. experiences that lead to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
what is a psychologist?
studies behaviors and mental processes of a person
what is a psychiatrist?
can do what a psychologist does but is also a medical doctor that can prescribe drugs
what are the 7 perspectives in psychology?
neuroscience, evolutionary, behavior genetics, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and social-cultural
what is a hypothesis?
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
what are the 3 parts of the scientific method?
1. making observations
2. forming theories
3. refining theories
what is a replication study?
being able to repeat a study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
what is operational definition?
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
what is a correlelation
a measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together, and thus of how well either factors predicts the other
what does a positive correlation look like and what's the number associated with it?
| /
| /
| /
|/____ (+1.00)
what does no correlation look like and that's the number associated with it??
| . .
| . . .
|. .. .
|___.__. (0.00)
what does a negative correlation look like and what's the number associated with it?
|\
| \
| \
|___\___ (-1.00)
in a correlation, what reflects magnitude?
the number
ex: r = + 0.37
^
|
in a correlation, what reflects direction?
the + or -
ex: r = +0.37
^
|
what's an illusory correlation? what's an example?
the perception of a relationship where none exists
ex: more babies are born when the moon is full
what is an experiment?
a research method in which an investigator maninpulates 1+ factor(s) to observe the effect on behavior
what are the 3 requirements of an experiment?
1. random assignment
2. include a control group
3. manipulate (vary) the IV
what is random assignment?
each person has an equal chance of being in the experimental or control groups
what is representative sampling(surveys)?
subjects in a study are typical of a larger population
why are representative samplings(surveys) important?
because memorable cases one finds at extremes are rare, you need to have a variety
what are the 3 parts of the scientific method?
1. making observations
2. forming theories
3. refining theories
what is a replication study?
being able to repeat a study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
what is operational definition?
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
what is a correlelation
a measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together, and thus of how well either factors predicts the other
what does a positive correlation look like and what's the number associated with it?
| /
| /
| /
|/____ (+1.00)
what does no correlation look like and that's the number associated with it??
| . .
| . . .
|. .. .
|___.__. (0.00)
what does a negative correlation look like and what's the number associated with it?
|\
| \
| \
|___\___ (-1.00)
in a correlation, what reflects magnitude?
the number
ex: r = + 0.37
^
|
in a correlation, what reflects direction?
the + or -
ex: r = +0.37
^
|
what's an illusory correlation? what's an example?
the perception of a relationship where none exists
ex: more babies are born when the moon is full
what is an experiment?
a research method in which an investigator maninpulates 1+ factor(s) to observe the effect on behavior
what are the 3 requirements of an experiment?
1. random assignment
2. include a control group
3. manipulate (vary) the IV
what is random assignment?
each person has an equal chance of being in the experimental or control groups
what is representative sampling(surveys)?
subjects in a study are typical of a larger population
why are representative samplings(surveys) important?
because memorable cases one finds at extremes are rare, you need to have a variety
what are experimental conditions?
conditions that expose the participants to the IV
what are control conditions?
condition that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
what is an independent variable?
experimental factor that's manipulated
what is the depentdnt variable?
the outcome factor...changes in response to IV
what is a double-blind procedure?
both the research participant and the researcher are ignorant about whether the research participants recieved the treatment or a placebo.
what is observer expectancy?
when the researcher expects certain results
what is the mean?
average
what is the median?
the middle score (1/2 below and 1/2 above)
what is the mode?
most frequently occuring scores
how is the mean affected by extreme scores?
if there are outliers, it won't be accurate
what's the range?
the difference between the highest and lowest scores
what are the 7 parts of a neuron?
dendrites, ason, myelin sheath, cell body, synapses, neurotransmitters, and axon terminals
what is threshold?
level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
what is excitatory signal?
accelerating
what is inhibitory signal?
braking
how is action potential like dominoes falling?
the depolarization of an axon causes the axon's next channel to open, like dominoes falling, each one tipping the next
what do agonists do?
mimic particular neurotransmitters and their effects (excite)
what to antagonists do?
block effects of neurotransmitters
what does morphine do?
mimics endorphins (agonists)
what are the parts of the CNS?
brain and spinal cord
what are the parts of the PNS?
nerves that link CNS w/ sense receptors, muscles, and glands
the spinal cord is an info highway connecting the brain to what?
PNS
what illustrates the spinal cord's work (reflexes)?
neural pathways
info travels to and from the brain by way of what?
spinal cord
is the spinal cord was cut, what would happen?
wouldn't feel pain or pleasure
what are the two types of PNS movements?
1. skeletal (voluntary movements)
2. autonomic (controls glands/visceral muscles)
what is the sympathetic system?
if something alarms/enrages/challenges you, it will accelerate your heartbeat etc. making you alert and ready for action (arousal)
**fight or flight**
what is the parasympathetic system?
conserves energy by decreasing heartbeat etc. and calms you down
what two systems work together to keep us in a steady internal state?
sympathetic & parasympathetic
what do sensory neurons do?
carry info from sensory organs to CNS
what are interneurons?
CNS neurons that communicate between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
what do motor neurons do?
carry info from CNS to muscles/glands
what does the endocrine system consist of?
1. glands that secrete hormones
2. hormones that travel thru bloodstream
hormones travel longer distances...which means they're....
1. slower acting
2. longer lasting
what are the 7 glands?
hypothalamus, thyroid, pituitary, parathyroids, adrenal, pancreas, ovary/teste
what does the limbic system do?
regulates basic drives and emotions
what are the 3 parts of the limbic system?
1. hippocampus
2. amygdala
3. hypothalamus
what is the hippocampus involved with?
memory
what is the amygdala involved with?
emotion
what is the hypothalamus involved with?
regulates drives, temp, and hormone levels
what is the cerebral cortex?
the fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres: the body's ultimate control and info-processing center
what are the lobes involved in the cerebral cortex?
frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal
what does the frontal lobe control and where is it located?
speaking, muscle movements, making plans & judgments
*behind forehead*
what is the parietal lobe and where is it located?
sensory input for touch and body position
*top/rear*
what is the occipital lobe and where is it located?
visual area (recieves info from opposite visual field)
*back*
what is the temporal lobe and where is it located?
auditory (recieves info from opposite ear)
*sides*
what are the three association areas?
motor cortex, sensory cortex, and visual & auditory cortex
what do association areas do?
integrate info
what does the motor cortex control?
voluntary movements
what does the sensory cortex do?
registers/processes body touch & movement sensations
what does the visual & auditory cortex do?
occipital lobes recieve input from eyes. auditory recieves info from ears
where is language stored?
broca's area
what results would you see if broca's area was damaged?
a person would struggle to speak words while still being able to sing familiar songs and comprehend speech
what is the corpus callosum?
band of axon fibers connecting hemispheres
what is split brain research?
designed for epilepsy research...it cuts the corpus callousum
what are the 5 ways to study brain functioning?
case studies, PET scan, CT, MRI, EEG
what are case studies?
observations in which one person is studied in depth in hopes of revealing universal principles
what is a PET scan?
detects where glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
what is a CT?
a 3-D image of the brain
what is a MRI?
magnetic fields and radio waves produce images that distinguish different types of soft tissue
what is evolutionary psychology?
study of human behavior
what is behavior genetics?
study individual differences in behavior
what are chromosomes?
rod-shaped structures that contain genetic material; found in the nucleus of every cell (46)
what is DNA?
makes up genes, carries biochemical instructions that tell cells how to make proteins that carry out body functions
what are genes?
segments of DNA chromosomes that contain codes for producing proteins
what is dominant inheritance?
recieve genes for contradictory traits
what is recessive inheritance?
homozygous trait (recieves 2 of the same recessive genes for that trait)
what is heritability?
variation in a trait attributed to genes
what is a shared environment?
common experiences (divorce, vacations, house, school)
what is a non-shared environment?
unique experiences (friends, injuries, jobs)
what is a passive environment?
parents are genetically related to child provide environment
what is evocative environment?
child's genotype elicits certain environmental stimulation
what is active environment?
niche-picking (seeking out environments that are compatable to your disposition)
what are identical twins?
monozygotic (MZ) 100%
what are fraternal twins?
dizygotic (DZ) 50%
what do adoption studies determine?
they compare traits of adopted child with traits of adopted vs. biological parents
what determines your ability to feel the wind blow against your skin?
sensory cortex
what determines the ability to make a good decision after reviewing evidence?
frontal lobe
what determines the ability to breathe or have a heartbeat?
medulla
the left hemisphere is important for:
communication, controlling movements, calculations, present and past, pattern perception
the right hemisphere is important for:
recieving and analyzing information, help understand what we see and hear, brain waves, bloodflow, glucose consumption, present and future, spatial perception
what are neurons?
nerve cells, building blocks of CNS
what are dendrites?
recieve info; attached to body cell (receptor sites located here)
what are axons?
passes info to other neurons (electrical impulse)
what are axon terminals?
swellings at branch ends (vesicles with NTS)
what are myelin sheaths?
layer of fatty cells; insulate/cover axons
explain neuron firing:
1. a neuron fires
2. axons open gates
3. Na+ ions flood thru membrane
4. depolarizes that part of axon causing next axon to open
5. domino effect
what is the refractory period?
neuron pumps positive ions back out and resets itself
what determines intensity of neuron firing
1. # of neurons that fire
2. # action potentials per second