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23 Cards in this Set

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Adjustment
The psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challanges of everyday life.
The Paradox of Progress
Apparent contradictions that refelct the same theme: The technological advances of the 20th century, impressive as they may be, have not led to perceptible impreovement in our collective health and happiness. Indeed, many social critics argue that the quality of our lives and our sense of personal fulfillment have declined.
Codependency Movement
Began when Beattie noticed the enabling aspects of alcoholics' spouses. "Codependent no more," originally a concept in the field of alcoholism counseling. Broadened its application to diverse behaviors and many addictions: food, love, gambling, drugs, etc. The participations, controlling, enabling itself signals codependency.
Codependent
A person who has allowed someone else's addictive behavior to affect them. May be obsessed with controlling the behavior or the consequences. True definition is hard to determine and is vague, thus there is little solid empirical research. Likely a gender bias in diagnosing or recognizing, because of women's more natural tendency to nurture.
Self-Help Books
Began as a fad in the 1960's with I'm OK, You're OK by Harris (1967). Exponentially increased in popularity and prevailence as years went on. Benefits among the different books vary greatly, and some are supported and encouraged by therapists. However, the reader must beware of the potential for "Psychobabble" or circular definitions and conclusions, absense of empirical backing, and quick fixes or sure cure claims. Individuals should instead seek concrete solutions.
Self Help Book Investigating
The consumer should look out for quick fixes, cures, etc. They should look for clarity and soundness in the methedology discussed and conclusions. Should exemplify concrete solutions and specificity of influence. Should be a plan based on scientific support of effectiveness, not a miracle cure or quick fix.
Critical Thinking Guidlines
1)What is being asserted?
2)Where did the information come from?
3)What or who is the source?
4)Do unproven assumptions underlie the ocncepts?
5)Does it define the problem? Does it consider biases? Does it use cause and effect?
Is there valid and reliable scientific evidence?
Psychology
The science and study of human behavior, including the underlying processes that cause behavior.
-Relies heavily on empirical study and clinical observations
Empirical Study
The premise that knowledge for studies should be acquired through observation.
Clinical Psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders; experiemental, often on animal models.
The Psychology of Adjustment
Focuses on adapting to the changes in one's environment, thus the psychological processes that allow people to manage and cope with the demands of everyday life.
Observation
Things that can be measured, seen, counted, timed, etc. An observation is an event, like a behavior.
Variables
Characteristics of what is being observed (?)
Naturalistic Observation
An approach to research in which the researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects. Helps to generate hypotheses for testing and theories for later research. Not empirical research, because it occurs in its natural setting and circumstances, without any intervention or influence.
Examples of Naturalistic Observations
Case study, journaling, surveys, specimen sampling.
Keys to Empirical Study
A true experiment is a research method where one variable (the independent variable) is manipulated to see if there is a change in another variable (the dependent variable). The biggest key is to look for the control group.
Correlational research and Social Sciences
Most social sciences are correlational, and thus are quasi-experiments. A correlation is a relationship between two or more variables that result in a correlation coeffiecent (which represent the strength of the relationship between the variables). Coefficients represent the direction of the relationship too, positive show a direct relationship, negative shows an inverse relationship. Correlation is not sufficient to infer causality, just because events or phenomena are related, doesn't necessarily mean there is a cause and effect relationship.
Advantages of Empirical Research
1)Allows researchers to draw conclusions about cause and effect involving variables.
2)Precise control of experiments allow for isolation of the relationship between variables studied not possible in naturalistic study.
3)Clarity
4)Precision
Types of Empirical Studies
1)Longitudinal- Study over long period of time, like in a video.
2)Cross-Sectional- Immediate sample, like a snapshot.
Personal Happiness
1)Data are correlational- but many empirical evidence suggests that many myths and beliefs about happiness are not valid.
2)Happiness is multifacited- determinants of happiness are highly subjective. Subjective feeling are more important than the objective realities.
3)Everything is relative- HEDONISTIC ADAPTATION- When people adapt to their circumstances and readjust their perceptions of personal well-being as compared to other's happiness.
Hedonistic Adaptation
When people adapt to their circumstances and readjust their perceptions of personal well-being as compared to other's happiness.
Quest for Happiness
1)Money- Only weakly related, poverty is linked to less happiness. Wealthy slightly happier than middle class.
2)Things not correlated with happiness---Age, gender, parenthood, intelligence, educational level, attractiveness, geography.
Factors Moderately Correlated to Happiness
1)Health- Many disabled, ill people are happy.
2)Social life- lonely people are often more unhappy, positive responses from individuals, socially active with friendship networks.
3)Religion
4)Love and Marriage- Most important, love or being in love most important aspect of happiness.
5)Job Satisfaction
6)Personal Traits (Personality)- extraversion, outgoing, social, upbeat, optimism and self-esteem.
7)Enduring or have a strong constitution?