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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phoneme
the sounds of language
morpheme
smallest units of meaning in a language
initial vocalizations similar across languages
crying, cooing, babbling
6 months language
babbling sounds begin to resemble surrounding language
1 year language
first words
18-24 months language
vocabulary spurt
end of second year language
child begins to combine words
end of third year language
complex ideas, plural, past tense
bilingualism
learning more than one language. second languages are more easily acquired early in life
problem solving
active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable
decision making
evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
what are some barriers of effective problem solving?
irrelevant information
functional fixedness
unnecessary constraints
algorithms
systematic trial-and-error
guaranteed solution
heuristics
shortcuts
no guaranteed solution
form subgoals
working backward
changing the representation
of a problem
confirmation bias
tendency to search for and use information that supports, rather than refutes, our ideas
availability heuristics
involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
representativeness heuristic
involved basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
reliability
refers to the measurement consistency of a test
validity
refers to the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
what does an IQ test measure?
factual knowledge, social competence, pratical problem solving, creativity, mechanical ingenity, artistic talent, emotioal intelligence