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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype proviedes a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin.
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier--but also more error-prone--use of heuristics
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
confirmation bias
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
mental set
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
functional fixedness
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
representativeness heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps b/c of their vividness), we presume such events are common
availability heuristic
the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
belief bias
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
belief perserverance
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences, in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
babbling stage
the stach in speech development, from about 1-2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
one-word stage
beginning at about 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements
two-word stage
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-"go car" using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxillary words
telegraphic speech
whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
linguistic determinism