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8 Cards in this Set

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Validity of Measurement
Correspondence of the values yielded by a measurement procedure with the attribute targeted for
measurement. Examples: a) criterion- related validity; b) content validity. (Answers the question, "Does this measure reflect
the intended attribute?")
Category System
1) Two or more mutually exclusive and exhaustive classifications for dividing events, content, or behavior
into defined groups. Example: Alternative responses to a survey question about marital status: Single, married, or other.
(Mutually exclusive means an event or behavior fits only one classification; exhaustive means all relevant events or behaviors
can be classified.) 2) A single, defined classification of behavior, events, or content that an observer codes as present or absent
for each of a series of similar instances. Example: Content analysis of children's books for presence or absence of an incident in
which the principal character resolves conflict through violence. (See also content analysis; systematic observation.)
Content Analysis
Classification & counting of parts of written, spoken, or visual records for occurrence of specific events,
using a category system. Example: Studying TV news coverage for 3 categories of predictions about the economy by news
reporters, optimistic, pessimistic, or neither.
Habituation
Decreased response or increased tolerance upon repeated or continued exposure. Examples: a) When exposed
to bursts of loud noise, people are startled at first but stop reacting after awhile. b) In naturalistic observation of children at
schools, they react to observers at first with "best behavior," but later ignore the observers and behave as usual. (Also called
"adaptation" or "desensitization." See also reactivity.)
Interval Recording
In systematic observation, using a category system with 1 behavior category and recording whether or
not the target behavior occurs during each of a series of equal time intervals. Example: Classroom observation of a child's
"studying" behavior in 5 minute intervals; an observer records for each time-interval whether or not studying occurs.
Naturalistic Observation
Applying systematic observation in a field setting or natural environment. Example: Becker
observed students' classroom seating locations and recorded occurrences of participation in class discussion.
Reactivity
Responses by individuals to the presence of an observer, involving different behavior when the observer is
present than otherwise. Example: In classroom observation, children "showing off" for visitors, including researchers.
Systematic Observation
Selectively recording the occurrence of one or more defined categories of individual behavior using
a well-described, repeatable procedure. Example: Komaki observed sailboat skippers and recorded, among other categories of
leadership behavior toward crew-members, presence or absence of performance feedback during specified time intervals.
(Systematic observation entails nominal measurement. In a natural environment, it is also called naturalistic observation).