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53 Cards in this Set

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learning
consistent change in behavior or behavior potential based on experience
learning-performance distinction
(like driving)
the difference between what has been learned and what is expressed
a process based on experience
can only learn through experiencing
john watson
behaviorism= preferred observable behavior over introspection
skinner
all behavior not accredited to evolution can be explained by simple forms of learning
behavior analysis
discovering environmental determinates of learning and behavior
classical conditioning
(Pavlov)
form of learning in which one stimulus or event predicts the occurence of another
Pavlov's procedure
dogs in restrained harness, stimulus, orienting response, repeated pairings, salivation
reflex
unlearned response that is naturally elicited by specific stimuli
SAME AS CS
(Mr. Williams)
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
any stimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive behavior
(Being yelled at)
unconditioned response (UCR)
behavior elicited by the unconditioned stimulus
SAME AS CR
(nervousness)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
elicits UCR due to its association with UCS
SAME AS REFLEX
(Mr. Williams)
conditioned response (CR)
whatever response the CS elicits as a product of learning
SAME AS UCR
(nervousness)
stimulus
better conditioning the more intense it is
acquisition
The process by which the conditioned response is firct elicited and gradually increases in frequency over trials.
extinction
Conditioned response no longer appears in the presence of the conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
the sudden reappearence of the CR after a rest period without further exposure to the UCS
savings
less time is necessary to reacquire the response than to acquire it originally
stimulus generalization
the automatic extension of responding to stimuli that have never been associated with the UCS
stimulus discrimination
organism learns to respond differently to stimuli that are distinct from the CS on some dimension
generalization and discrimination
must be balanced to avoid being over selective or responsive
informativeness
previous conditioning blocks subsequent conditioning
disgusting!
conditioned responses win out over the knowledge that something really isnt gross
drug use and conditioning
in setting where drug use frequently occurs, your body prepares to compensate
law of effect
response followed by satisfying consequences becomes more probable
operant conditioning
manipulate the consequences of somethings behavior in order to see what effect they woudl have on subsequent behavior
operants
any behavior that is emitted by an organism and has observable effects on the environment
operant chamber
press button-->food
allows for witnessing learning
positive reinforcement
behvarios is followed by the delivery of an apetitive stimulus ++
negative reinforcement
behvarior is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus --
positive punishment
(reduces prob)
behavior is followed by an aversive stimulus
+-
negative punishment
(reduces prob)
removal of appetitive stimulus
-+
discriminative stimuli
signals when particular behaviors will result in positive reinforcement
three term contingency
things learn that in the presence of some stimuli but not others, their behavior is likely to have a particular effect on the environment
primary reinforcer
reinforcing properties are biologically determined
Gerald Patterson
coercion model
conditioned reinforcer
formerly neutral- became reinforcing (money, stars)
token economies
desired behavior is defined, receive tokens, tokens=priveleges
Premack Principle
more probable activity can be used to reinforce a less probable one (video games after homework)
partial reinforcement
responses acquired this way are more resistent to extinction that those acquired through continous
Fixed Ratio Schedules
reinforcer comes after a fixed number of responses (sell 5 to get paid)
brief pauses after each reinforcement
Variable Ratio Schedules
average number of responses between reinforcers is predetermned (gambling--how many coins to get response)
no pauses
Fixed Interval Schedules
reinforcer is delivered for the first response made after a fixed period of time
Few responses after each reinforcer
Variable interval schedules
average reinforcement interval is predetermined (study each day for pop quiz)
constant rate
shaping
using successive proximations to reinforce repsonses that ultimately match the desired response
biological constraints
any limitations on learning imposed by a species' genetic endowment
instinctual drift
learned behavior drifts towards instinctual behavior over time
taste aversion learning (John Garcia)
animals can learn some associations, but humans know better. learn in one trial that ingestion leads to illness
cognition
process fo knowing and the content of the processes
Edward Tolman
when original path is blocked, orgs will take shortest detour around, even if this detour is not reinforced
cognitive maps
representation of the overall layout of the maze
vicarious punishment/ reinforcement
changing your own behavior in light of what has happened to others
observational learning
learning new responses by watching the behavior of another