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128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pages in the introduction
Pages in the introduction
Visual stimulus
Anything that are catch by the eyes.
Optic nerve
A nerve runs lengthwise from the eye to the occipital lobe. Carry visual stimulus.
Lateral geniculate nucleus
Located near the thalamus.
Optic radiation
Located near the thalamus.
Visual cortex
Locate in the occipital lobe.
Visual association cortex
Located in the occipital lobe infront of visual cortex.
Front cortex (cognition)
Located in the frontal lobe.
Motor cortex
Located near lateral geniculate nucleus.
Located near the ear.
Occulomotor nucleus
Located on top of cerebellum.
Point where nerve cells exchange information.
Motor fiber (axon)
Fiber that can move.
The branches of nerve cell that receive information.
Motor neuron
Neuron that functions in motor.
Astrocyte (glial cell)
Nerve cell that transport food to neuron.
Myelin sheath
A wrap-like protect neuron axon.
Oligodendrocyte (glial cell)
Nerve cell that make myelin sheath.
Blood vein.
Axon to axon synapse
Synapse between axon and axon.
Nuclear pore
Small holes in the nucleus.
the central organelles of the cell.
The cell organelles that make energy.
The one branch of neuron that carry send information to other neuron.
Synaptic vesicle (neurotransmitter)
Small balloon-like that carry neurotransmitter.
Golgi apparatus
A bulge from smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Don’t know yet.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Don’t know yet.
Cell body (soma)
the body of the cell.
Chapter 1 Introduction to the Nervous System
Chapter Introduction to the Nervous System
Why Study the Brain?
Why Study the Brain? Because it provides the closest of discovering in human behavior.
Brain researchers.
an examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death or the changes produced by disease.
Brain, Mind, and Behavior
Brain, Mind, and Behavior
The method that use to study behavior as the only precisely measurable aspect of the psychology of humans and other animals.
Certain nerve cells are active before the animal moves and decide when the animal use which behavior to perform.
Brain and Mind: A Basic Premise
Brain and Mind: A Basis Premise
What Does the Brain Do?
What Does the Brain Do? Sensation, motin, internal regulation, reproduction, and adaptation to the world around us.
We senses the world through vision, audition, gustataion, olfaction, and somatic sensation. There is another sense called bestibular apparatus.
Somatic Sensation
Vestibular apparatus
Sense of balance.
Nucleus of lateral lemnisci
Will be coming up.
Medial geniculate body
Will be coming up.
Auditory cortex
Will be coming up.
Will be coming up.
Dorsal cochlear nucleus
Will be coming up.
Cochlear nerve
Will be coming up.
Ventral cochlear nucleus
Will be coming up.
Two different types of motion that body make: volutary motions and involuntary motions.
Voluntary motions
Those that you can control.
Involuntary motions
Those that you cannot control.
Located near the ear.
Motor nucleus
Located in the thalamus.
Parasympathetic nerves
Will be coming up.
Sympathetic nerves
Will be coming up.
Located beneath cerebellum.
Vagal nucleus
Located in medulla.
Sympathetic ganglion
Located beneath vagal nucleus.
Runs lengthwise with spinal cord.
Vagus nerve
Runs lengthwise with spinal cord.
Innervation of heart
A small nerve runs lengthwise on the heart.
Motor cortex
Located near temporal lobe.
Located near the ear.
Motor nucleus of facial nerve
Located beneath thalamus.
Facial nerve to muscle of face
Nerve that move the face.
Internal regulation
Internal regulation.
When an adaptive response leads to a long lasting change in behavior.
Irrational fears of particular things or events, choose certain behaviors to alleviate their anxiety.
What is a Brain?
What is a Brain? The brain is an organ specialized to help individual organism carry out major acts of living.
Historical Views of Brain, Mind, and Behavior
Historical Views of Brain, Mind, and Behavior.
Greek philosopher of the 6 BC referred to the mind as an enormous space whose boundaries could never be reached, even by traveling along every path.
Greek philosopher in 4 BC said the heart was the source of nervous control, but was also the seat of the soul.
Greek physician in 2 AD said the important parts of the brain to lie not in the brains’ substance but in its fluid (cerebrospinal fluid)-filled cavities (cerebroventricular system). Also believed that all physical functions and states of health and ill health depended on the distribution of 4 body fluids or humors: choler (blood) carry vital living spirit, phlegm (mucus) caused sluggishness, black bile caused melancholy, and yellow bile caused temper.
Who considered the nerves to be hollow tubes through which the flow of gasses excited the muscles.
Aetherial Medium
Proposed by Newton that activity was transmitted by a vibrating the term.
Analysis by Observation and Experimentation
Analysis by Observation and Experimentation.
Proposed the phrenology.
Also called lesion approach. Proposed by Gall. Said that human mental faculties could be located by charting the bulges in the skull that overlay the pertinent physical structures of the brain.
Wallerian degeneration
A chemical method that would detect strands of dying nerves.
Nerve cells.
Neuroglia or glia
Nerve cells that appeared like glue between the neurons.
A Contemporary analogy
A Contemporary Analogy.
The Scientific Method
The Scientific Method.
The accurate recording of the methods of study.
Reasoning about the results in order to generate hypotheses that ca be used to frame future experiments.
The repetition of the study by others, using the same conditions, in order to confirm or question the results.
Inductive reasoning
The process of working from observations, to formulation of an integrative hypothesis, to evaluation of the hypothesis experimentally.
Deductive reasoning
The process that starts with a global hypothesis and the formulates experiments to test its truth.
The Organization of the Nervous System
The Organization of the Nervous System.
Central nervous system
Includes all the parts of the nervous system that lie within the bones of the skull and spine.
Peripheral nervous system
Includes all the parts of the nervous system that lie outside of the skull and spine.
Somatic nervous system
Nerves that carry information from skin, muscles, bones, and joints to the spinal cord and vice versa.
Autonomic nervous system
More to come.
Diffuse enteric nervous system
The internal autonomous nervous system of the digestive tract.
Organization of the Brain: An Introduction
The Organization of the Brain: An Introduction.
A densely packed group of neurons.
Fields or areas
Other distinct group of neurons that are not densely packed like in the nucleus.
Composed of telencephalon and diencephalons.
composed of diencephalons, midbrain, and hindbrain.
Spinal cord
More to come.
All of the brain top.
Composed of Thalamus and Hypothalamus.
Located near the ear.
Located below thalamus.
Located below thalamus.
Composed of pons, cerebellum, and medulla.
A bulge at the top of spinal cord.
The bulk at the bottom of the brain.
The eminence part below the pons.
The Forebrain and Its Parts
The Forebrain and Its Parts.
Cerebral cortex
The brain outermost layer.
Subdivision of cerebral cortex.
Grooves that divide the cerebral cortex into lobes.
occipital lobe
For vision.
Temporal lobe
For hearing and speech.
Parietal lobe
For sensory responses.
Frotal lobe
for motor control and coordination of the functions of the other cortical areas.
Nutlike shape.
Shape like sea horse.
Basal ganglia
More to come.
Wall formed between two ventricles.
Limbic system
Composed of amygdale, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and septum function together to help regulate emotion, memory, and certain aspects of movement.