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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is psychology?
The scientific study of the mind (mental processes)and behavior.
Empirical observation is...
objective evidence gathered through direct observation
What are mental processes?
content and processes of subjective experience including sensations, thoughts, and emotions.
Behavior is...
observable actions performed by a person or animal.
meaning of cognitive
any kind of mental operation
what are the three levels of analysis?
Level of the brain- the structure and functions of the organ itself.
Level of the person- events involving the nature of beliefs, desires, and feelings.
leve of the group- relationships between others, among groups and culture
Types of psychologists are?
Clinical and Counseling psychologists, Applied psychologists, and Academic/research psychology.
types of clinical psychologist
clinical, counseling, psychiatrist, social worker, and psychiatic nurse
what are the two parts of applied psychology?
human factors psychology-improving products.
applied- improving work environments (experiments for practical problems in the work force)
What did Plato and Socrates believe in?
nature, mind seperable from body, knowledge built with in us
Aristotle differed from Socrates in what way?
on nuture side, empiricism (loved data), mind not seperable from body.
What were Rene Decartes beliefs?
mind and body were seperable. innate knowledge, animal spirits flowed within nerves
What are the two camps produced over the mind-body issue?
Dualists- mind and body are distinct but interacting entities
Monists- mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
What was John Locke opinion on nature vs. nurture?
tabula rasa- blank slate.
Who was opposing John Locke?
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Who is the father of modern day psychology?
Wilhelm Wundt
Define structuralism
how basic elements (sensations and feelings) formed mental structure; introspection "looking within"
Who proceeded Wundt in his studies?
Functionalism...who was the found?
emphasized the purposes of immediate experience...William James (applied Darwins theory to mental characteristics)
Gestalt Psychology
emphasized the overall patterns (perceptual units) of thoughts or experience (Max Wertheimer)
Psychodynamic Theory
continual push-and-pull interaction among the conscious and unconscious forces. Sigmund Freud.
What term was coined by Freud.
how a specifice stimulus evokes a specific response. the ABCs. antecedent, behavioral response, consequence. JB Watson
emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
Founder of humanisn: self actualization
and of self-centered therapy
Abraham Maslow

Carl Rogers
First woman to receive PHd
Margaret Washburn
First African-American to earn Phd
Francis Cecil Sumner
First African-American Woman to earn PhD
Inez Beverly Prosser
What is observer Bias
error due to personal motives and or expectations of the viewer

glass empty/ glass full idea
How to prevent observer bias
standardization- operational definition
Independent variable
factor manipulated by researcher
Dependent Variable
factor measured by researcher
Confounding variable
any variable affeting the dependent variable other than independent variable
expectancy effect
unintentional hints by the researcher of what is expected from participant
Placebo Effect
change in behavior due to the belief that the treatment is effective (sugar pills)
Double Blind Control
neither researcher nor participant know which condition is being tested
Between-subjects design
atleast two groups the experimental and control are being tested
Random Assignment
used to eliminate the confounding variables relate to individual difference
a sample is defined as
a subset of the population
representative sample.
a sample that holds characteristics similar of the entire population
Random Sample
everyone has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment.
change in behavior after knowledge of being observed
consistency or dependability of behavioral data
accurately measures the variable it was intended to measure
case study is...
an intensive examination of one person.
Illusory correlation
appearance of a correlation when none exists
three functions of the nervous system
Input- hear alarm clock
Processing- brain knows its time to wake up
Output- hit the snooze
Parts of the Neuron and their job.
axons- carry signals away from cell body
terminal button- axon foot containing neurotransmitters
synapse- gap between neurons that neurotransmitters cross.
dendrites- detect and carry signals to the cell body.
soma- cell body
myelin sheath- insulates neuron and speed and rate of action potentials.
what is the role of the glial cells
hold neurons in place, directs their growth, and repairs
Somatic Nervous System
messages from senses to CNS and sends movement instructions to muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
messages back and forth between CNS and organs and glands
sympathetic system
prepare the body for action through the fight-or-flight syndrome
parasympathic system
regulates the body's energy- conserving functions
the sympathetic and parasympathetic system are apart of the
autonomic nervous system
measures general electrical activity in the brain
scan records where radioactive substances are concentrated- maximally invasive
exposes brain to a magnetic field and measure radio frequency waves.
uses a magnetic field to detect changes in blood flow.
medulla, reticular formation, locus coerulus, cerebellum
parts of the hind brain
function of the midbrain
relays information from the five senses, controls certain automatic behaviors, not viral functions
Forebrain parts
thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system.
basic functions you need to survive
reticular formation
function of attention, sleep, or movement
locus coeruleus
cells run from hindbrain to midbrain. activates reticular formation
finely cordinated movements
relay system
regulates basic drives
limbic system (2 parts)
amygdala- regulates emotions
hippocampus- learning and memory
corpus callosum does what?
allows the left and right brain to commmunicate
each side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body
wrinkles in the brain
left side and right side of the brains functions
language and logic

spatial, artistic, and musical abilities
physical landmarks of the cortex
frontal lobe, temperal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe
function of the landmark
frontal lobe, decision making
temporal lobe, integrating information
parietal lobe, any sensation
occipital lobe, vision
broca and wernicks area
wernicks- undestanding spoken language
broca- responsible for producing language