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76 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Reliability
a measure's ability to produce consistent results.
Validity
appled to a psychological measure, it refers to the measure's ability to assess the variable it is supposed to assess
Generalizability
the applicability of the findings to the entire population of interest to the researcher.
Correlation coefficient
measures the extent to which two variables are related
Falsifiability
the ability of a theory to be proven wrong as a means of advancing science
Monism
all psychological events are biochemical events in the brain
Dualism
the doctrine of dual spheres Mind-body problem
theory
systematic way of organizing and explaining obervations
Dendrite
branchlike extensions of the neuron, receive inputs from other cells
Axon
A long extension from the cell body, whose central function is to transmit info to other neurons
Myelin Sheath
a tight coat of cells composed primarily of lipids (fats) that facilitates transmission of information to other neurons.
limbic system
set of structures with diverse functions involving emotion, motivation, learning and memory.
amygdala
almond-shaped structure. involved in many emotional processes, especially learning and remembering emotionally significant events.
hippocampus
particulary important for storing new information in memory so that the personcan later consciously remember it
hindbrain
located directly above and connected to the spinal cord. has several structures that comprise the hindbrain: medulla oblongata, cerebellum and parts of the reticular formation.
Cerebellum
maintains posture and balance, smooths muscle movements in well-practices action sequences
Cerebral Cortex
3 functions: allows the felxible construction of sequences of voluntary movements involved in activities such as changing a tire or playing a piano. it permits subtle discriminations among complex snesory patterns and it make possible symbolic thinking.
Temporal Lobe
hearing and language
Occipital Lobe
specialized for processing simple viaual features.
parietal lobe
part of cortex that processes complex viual-spatial features, such as spatial orientation and object recognition.
frontal lobe
part of cortex that is involved in movement, attention, planning, social skills, memory and personality
motor cortex
part of frontal lobe that initiates voluntary musle movements
Somatosensory cortex
part of parietal lobe that receives sensory information from the entire body
Broca's area
part of frontal lobe that controls muscles for speech production
wernicke's area
part of temporal lobe that is specialized for language comprehension
capgras delusion
rare disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that an acquaintance, usually a close family member or spouse, has been replaced by an identical looking imposter.
hemispatial neglect
is a deficit in attention to the left side of space seen most often after right hemisphere brain injury. Damage with the brain areas in the parietal and frontal lobes is associated with the deployment of attention into left or right space. Behaviour associated with neglect include failure to find objects on the left side of a table or in a room
blindsight
condition superficially resembling blindness. In blindsight, people with damage to the visual cortex have residual visual sensitivity in a subjectively blind part of the visual field.
split brain
condition where the corpus callosum connecting the two halves of the brain is severed to some degree. This is often done to treat epilepsy.
phantom limbs
a limb was removed but they can still sense that it is there
Agency
motives for achievmetn, mastery, power, autonomy, and other self-oriented goals
Communion (relatedness)
motives for connectedness with others
homeostasis
the body's tendency to maintain a relatively constant state
implicit motives
motives that can be activated and expressed outside of awareness
intrinsic motivation
enjoyment of and interest in an activity for its own sake
primary drive
an innate drive such as hunger, thirst, and sex
secondary drive
a drive learned through conditioning and other learning mechanisms such as modeling.
selt actualization
needs to express oneself, grow, and attain one's potential
opponent process theory
extreme emotions followed by their opposites (rebound effect). repeated stimulation results in habituation of original emotions. drug addiction, thrill seeking, puritanical values.
moods
relatively extended emotional states that do not shift attention or disrupt ongoing activities
schacter-singer theory
emotion involves 2 factors: physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation
alexithymia
the inability to recognize one's own feelings
james-lange theory
emotions originate in peripheral nervous system responses that the central nervous system then interprets
canon-lange theory
emotion-inducing stimuli simultaneously elicit both an emotional experience, such as fear, and bodily responses, such as sweaty palms
Fear
flee danger, sympathetic activation.
Anger
hurt people who might hurt us
disgust
protection from bacteria
sadnes
conserve energy andmaintain attachment
joy
positive reinforcer for behavior that conferred a reproductive advantage to our ancestors
contentment
calms the body and removes the incentive to change
What is the difference between an operational definition of a variable and a theorectical definition?
theoretical definitions are clear descriptions of the variable and operational definitions are specific procedures used to measure the variable
Can science bring us certainty? why or why not?
No, sometimes there is bad data which means it isn't reliable or something bad valid measurements like led zepplin
what does it mean when 2 variables are positively correlate? negatively correlated?
positive correlation means that the higher individuals measure on one variable, the hgither they are likely to measure on the other and negative correlation means that the hgiher participants measure on one variable, the lower they will measure on the other.
what does it mean when a correlation coefficient for 2 variables is 0?
it means the two variables are not related. strong correlation is a positive or negative 1.0
what is the difference between a graded potential and an action potential?
graded potential is spreading voltage changes, which occur when the neural membrane receives a signal from another cell, strength diminishes and action potential is the firing of the neuron it has all or non quality.
what is neurotransmitters?
chemicals that transmit information from one cell to another.
what is a synapse?
connections between neurons occur here
central vs. peripheral
Central - brian & soubak cord
Peripheral- Neurons that convey messages to and from the cnetral nervous system
Somatic vs. Automatic
Somatic - transmits sensory information to the central nervous system and carries out its motor commands
Automatic - conveys info to and from internal bodily structures that carry out basic life porcesses such as digestion and respiration.
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
Sympathetic - typically activated in response to threats
Parasympathetic - Supports more mundane, or routine, activities that maintain the body's store of enery
What kind of situations cause the sympathetic nervous system to be come active?
fight or flight. responds to emergencies. it stops digestion, diverting blood away from the stomach and redirecting it to the muslcles, increases hearts rate and so on...
what kinds of situations cause the parasympathetic nervous system to become active?
emergencies, but the parasympathetic nervous system resumes control, reversing sympathetic effects and returning to the normal business of storing and maintaining resources.
What is the difference between association areas and primary areas of the cerebral cortex?
the primary areas process raw sensory information or initiate movement
the association ares are involved in complex mental processes such as forming perceptions, ideas, and plans
what does the left hemisphere of the cortex specialize in? the right hemisphere?
the left functions the right and the right functions the left
What are the differences between Freud's 3 levels of consciousness (unconscious, preconscious, conscious)?
Conscious - involve subjective awareness of simuli, feelings, or ideas.
Preconscious - are not presnetly conscious but could be readily brought to consciousness, ex, smell of bacon cooking in the backgroung.
unconscioius - inaccessible to consciousness because they would be too anxiety porvoking and thus have been repressed.
what kind of personality traits are associated with hypnotizability?
people can form vivid visual images and can become readily absorbed in fantasy, daydreams, and movies.
what, if any, are the effects of subliminal messages?
effects are weak, inconsistent and only get you to do things that you already wanted to do.
what is the circadian rhythem?
a cyclical biological process that evolved aroudn teh daily cycles of light and dark.
About how long is a normal sleep cycle?
90 minutes
after each sleep cycle, what happens to the length of time you spend in NREM sleep compared to the length of time you spend in REM sleep?
the person spends less time in deeper sleep and more time in REM sleep.
During what stage do we have vivid, story-like dreams?
REM sleep
Which states of consciousness or sleep stages are associated with alpha waves? beta waves? theta waves? delta waves?
Beta - Awake and alert
Alpha - Awake, relaxed, eyes closed
Theta - Stage 1
Delta - Stage 3 and 4
what is the difference between the manifest and latent content of a dream?
Manifest - Story line
Latent - Dream's underlying meaning
what is insomnia?
inability to sleep
what is hypnosis?
characterized by deep relaxation nd suggestibility
Synesthesia
stimulation of one sensory modality leading to perceptual experience in another sensory modality.