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211 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Which type of neuron has one axon and many dendrites that emerge from the cell body?
Mulitpolar Neuron
Amy Kim
What is the resting potential and the point of excitation?
Resting: -70
Excitation: -65
Amy Kim
What is electrostatic pressure?
Attracts two negatively charged ions with opposite charges.
Amy Kim
Which ions are pushed into the cell during the action potential?
Potassium and Sodium
Amy Kim
What is the difference between EPSP and IPSP?
EPSP: depolarizes the cell
IPSP: hyperpolarizes the cell
Amy Kim
What does the influx of Sodium ions trigger during the action potential?
Triggers the opening of the voltage activated potassium channels.
Amy Kim
What are the five stages of synaptic transmission?
1. Synthesis of neurotransmitters
2. Storage in vesicles
3. Exocytosis
4. Binding/Activation
5. Deactivation
Amy Kim
What happens in exocytosis?
Action potential opens up voltage activated Calcium channels, Calcium enters and fuses with the presynaptic membrane, synaptic vesicle dumps contents of neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft.
Amy Kim
Which type of bonding receptor occurs in indirect activation?
Metabotropic.
Amy Kim
What are the two basic drugs and what do they do?
Agonist: ultimate effect is to increase the effects of a given NT
Antagonist: ultimate effect is to decrease the effects of a given NT
Amy Kim
What is Antidromic Conduction?
electrical stimulation is applied to the terminal end of the axon creating an action potential that will travel back to the cell body
Kelli Morgan
What is Saltatory Conduction
the transmission of action potentials in meylinated axons
Kelli Morgan
What is Orthdromic Condution?
action potentials going in the normal direction from cell body to terminal buttons
Kelli Morgan
What is Spatial Summation?
the sum of multiple neurons firing on one neuron
Kelli Morgan
What is Temporal Summation?
the sum of one neuron firing several times rapidly on another neuron
Kelli Morgan
What are the two major structures of the metencephalon?
The Pons and the cerebellum (these are separated by the fourth ventricle).
Alaina Florez
The cerebellum is also known as what?
The "little brain"
Alaina Florez
The bridge of neurons in between the two hemispheres of the little brain is what?
The cerebellar commissure.
Alaina Florez
What structures make up the diencephalon?
Thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and optic chiasm.
Alaina Florez
The pituitary gland has two "halves" or "parts," what are they?
The anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary.
Alaina Florez
How does the charge inside a resting neuron differ from the charge outside?
The inside is more negatively charged than the outside.
Alaina Florez
What 2 forces/gradients work to keep more concentration of one type of ion inside rather than outside of a cell and vice versa?
The concentration gradient and the electrostatic gradient/electrical pressure
Alaina Florez
What is the triggering event for exocytosis?
An influx of calcium ions.
Alaina Florez
What are the 5 stages of synaptic transmission?
1 - Synthesis of NTs
2 - Storage in vesicles
3 - Exocytosis
4 - Binding/Activation
5 - Deactivation
Alaina Florez
Where are the synaptic vesicles synthesized?
In the presynaptic terminal
Alaina Florez
What are the 5 major brain division?
Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metecephalon
Myelencephalon
Caleb Evans
2504813
What is the fatty substance surrounding axons?
Myelin
Caleb Evans
2504813
A molecule that binds to another molecule; A neurotransmitter is a _______ of its receptor.
Ligand
Caleb Evans
2504813
What are the receptors that are associated with ligand-activated ion channels?
Ionotropic receptors
Caleb Evans
2504813
What are the receptors associated with signal proteins and G proteins?
Metabotropic receptors
Caleb Evans
2504813
What are the 2 parts of the Mesencephalon?
Tectum and Tegmentum
Abbey Holtz
What are the two parts of the Tectum and what are they responsible for?
1. Inferior Colliculi - auditory
2. Superior Colliculi - visual
Abbey Holtz
What are the three parts of the Tegmentum?
Periaquductal grey, substania nigra, and red nucleus
Abbey Holtz
What is the function of the telencephalon?
voluntary movement, interpret sensory input, and mediate cognitive processes
Abbey Holtz
What is the function of the limbic system? (hint: the 4 F's)
fleeing, fighting, feeding, and sex
Abbey Holtz
What are the 3 brains of the Triune brain?
Reptilian Brain, Paleomammalian Complex, Neomammalian Complex
Jeana Potter
Where is the Thalamus located?
On top of the brain stem
Jeana Potter
What are the longest cranial nerves?
The Vagus nerves
Jeana Potter
What does cerebrospinal fluid do and how is it produced?
It protects the CNS; it is continulously produced by the choroid plexuses.
Jeana Potter
How do you treat hydrocephalus?
Drain excess fluid from the ventricles.
Jeana Potter
What is Soma another name for?
The Cell Body
Jeana Potter
______ is the cone-shaped region at the junction between the axon and the cell body.
Axon hillock
Jeana Potter
What are the gaps called that are between sections of myelin?
Nodes of Ranvier
Jeana Potter
What are the gaps called that are between adjacent neurons across which chemical signals are transmitted?
Synapses
Jeana Potter
What are is the name of the only glial cells that can guide axonal regeneration (regrowth) after damage?
Schwann Cells
Jeana Potter
What are the 2 forces trying to equalize a cells charge?
Electrostatic Pressure & Concentration Gradient
Blaine Muhl
What does a concentration gradient do?
Forces of random motion/diffusion that makes the particles spread out, somewhat equally across space
Blaine Muhl
saltwater like substance surrounding a cell
ECF
Blaine Muhl
What is the ion concentration inside a cell?
Protein- (anion) and K+ (Potassium)
Blaine Muhl
What is the ion concentration outside a cell?
Na+ and Cl-
Blaine Muhl
What barrier keeps homogenizing forces from working?
Phospholipid bi-layer
Blaine Muhl
What ions can pass freely through the bi-layer?
Cl- and K+
Blaine Muhl
What is the most common type of neuron in the CNS?
Multipolar Neuron
Blaine Muhl
Name the 4 types of neurons
1. Multipolar
2. Bipolar
3. Unipolar
4. Interneuron
Blaine Muhl
What are the 4 structures of a neuron?
1. Cell body/soma
2. Dendrites
3. Axon
4. Terminal Buttons
Blaine Muhl
What two divisions is the vertebrate nervouse system composed of?
The Central and Periphreal nervous system.
Jordan Jakubov
What two divisions is the Central Nervous System composed of?
The brain and the spinal cord.
Jordan Jakubov
What two divisions is the Periphreal Nervous System composed of?
The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
Jordan Jakubov
What are the two kinds of efferent nerves that are located in the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic.
Jordan Jakubov
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
12
Jordan Jakubov
What are the two most protected organs in the body?
The brain and spinal cord.
Jordan Jakubov
What three membranes protect the brain and the spinal cord?
dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater
Jordan Jakubov
What is composed largely of cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons?
Gray Matter.
Jordan Jakubov
What is the stem on which the cerebral hemispheres sit?
Brain Stem
Jordan Jakubov
Which division of the brain is the most posterior?
Myelencephalon (medulla)
Jordan Jakubov
What two divisions is the vertebrate nervous system composed of?
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Jordan Jakubov
Name two basic types of drugs
Agonist & antagonist
Blaine Muhl
What is an agonist?
increases the effect of a NT
Blaine Muhl
What is an antagonist?
decreases the effects of a NT
Blaine Muhl
What are the two ways NTs are deactivated?
Reuptake & Enzymatic Degradation
Blaine Muhl
What happens during exocytosis?
Action Potential opens voltage activated calcium channels, Ca++ enters the button from synaptic cleft and fuses the synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, Synaptic vesicle dumps contents of NT into synaptic cleft.
Blaine Muhl
List the three meninges (protective membranes for the brain)
1. The outer meninx (dura mater)
2. Arachnoid membrane
3. Pia mater
Heidi Welsch
Dendrites
RECEIVE synaptic messages
Heidi Welsch
Terminal knobs/buttons
TRANSMIT synaptic messages
Heidi Welsch
Oligodendrocytes
Glial cells rich in myelin, with extensions that wrap around some axons.
Heidi Welsch
Anterior
Towards the nose
Heidi Welsch
Posterior
Towards the back (tail)
Heidi Welsch
Dorsal
Towards the surface or back of the head
Heidi Welsch
Ventral
Towards the surface of the chest, or bottom of the head
Heidi Welsch
Medial
Towards the midline of the head
Heidi Welsch
Lateral
Away from the body's midline
Heidi Welsch
In a resting state, what is the pressure exerted on Cl- ions from the concentration gradient?
70mV of pressure pushing the Cl- in to the cell
Amanda Murphy
In a resting state, what is the pressure exerted on Cl- ions from electrostatic pressure?
70mV pushing Cl- out of the cell
Amanda Murphy
In a resting state, what is the pressure exerted on Na+ ions from the concentration gradient?
70mV pushing Na+ into the cell
Amanda Murphy
In a resting state, what is the pressure exerted on Na+ ions from electrostatic pressure?
50mV pushing Na+ into the cell
Amanda Murphy
In a resting state, what is the pressure exerted on K+ ions from the concentration gradient?
90mV pushing K+ out of the cell
Amanda Murphy
In a resting state, what is the pressure exerted on K+ ions from electrostatic pressure?
70mV pushing K+ into the cell
Amanda Murphy
What kind of cells make up the cortex?
Pyramidal and Stellate cells
Amanda Murphy
What is the primary function of a Pyramidal cell?
To send motor signals
Amanda Murphy
What is the primary function of a Stellate cell?
Receiving/integrating sensory information
Amanda Murphy
When is the threshold of excitation reached?
When the cell drops from -70mV to -65mV (depolarized)
Amanda Murphy
What are the different parts of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Somatic and Autonomic
Amanda Murphy
What does the Somatic part of the PNS do?
Interacts with external environment
Amanda Murphy
What does the Autonomic part of the PNS do?
Regulates body's internal environment
Amanda Murphy
What are Afferent Nerves?
They carry sensory signals TO the central nervous system
Amanda Murphy
What are Efferent Nerves?
They carry signals FROM the central nervous system to skeletal muscles
Amanda Murphy
What are sympathetic nerves associated with?
Psychological arousal
Amanda Murphy
What are parasympathetic nerves associated with?
Psychological relaxation
Amanda Murphy
How many cranial nerves are there?
12
Amanda Murphy
What are the 3 protective meninges that protect the brain?
1. Outer- dura matter
2. Arachnoid membrane
3. Subarachnoid space
4. Pia Matter- adheres to the surface of the CNS
Amanda Murphy
What continually produces cerebrospinal fluid?
Choroid Plexuses
Amanda Murphy
What absorbs excess cerebrospinal fluid?
Dural Sinuses
Amanda Murphy
Is an action potential decremental or non-decremental?
Non-decremental
Amanda Murphy
In a myelinated axon, what are the only places where ions can pass through?
Nodes of Ranvier
Amanda Murphy
What is attacked by the immune system in Multiple Sclerosis?
Myelin in the central nervous system
Amanda Murphy
Where are large neurotransmitters synthesized and where are they stored?
They are synthesized on ribosomes and stored in the synaptic vesicles
Amanda Murphy
What can larger neurotransmitters do in relation to G proteins?
They can bind to a signal protein, causing part of a G protein to break off and either a) bind to an ion channel and initiate and EPSP/IPSP or b) bind to DNA as a 2nd messenger in the nucleus
Amanda Murphy
What are two types of neurotransmitter deactivation?
Enzymatic degradation: enzymes break down certain neurotransmitters
Reuptake: neurotransmitters are re-absorbed into presynaptic neuron and recycled
Amanda Murphy
What does black widow venom do?
Acts as an agonist on Acetylcholine and causes the contraction of the diaphragm
Amanda Murphy
What do dendrites do?
Receive synaptic contacts from other neurons
Amanda Murphy
What is the Golgi Complex?
A system of membranes that packages molecules in the vesicles
Amanda Murphy
What is the Mitochondria?
Site of aerobic energy release
Amanda Murphy
What types of proteins are embedded in a neuron cell membrane?
Channel proteins: allow certain molecules to pass through
Signal proteins: transfer signal to inside of neuron when protein binds with it
Amanda Murphy
What are Oligodendrocytes?
Glial cells with extensions that wrap around the axons of some neurons of the CNS. These extensions create myelin sheaths that speed up axonal conduction.
Amanda Murphy
What are Schwann Cells?
Wraps around axons in the PNS with myelin.
Amanda Murphy
What does anterior mean?
Toward the nose end (rostral)
Amanda Murphy
What does posterior mean?
Toward the tail end (caudal)
Amanda Murphy
What does dorsal mean?
Toward the surface of back of top of head
Amanda Murphy
What does ventral mean?
Toward the surface of chest or bottom of head
Amanda Murphy
What does medial mean?
Toward the midline of the body
Amanda Murphy
What does lateral mean?
Away from the midline toward body's lateral surfaces
Amanda Murphy
What are the 5 divisions of the brain?
Telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon (the last four make up the brain stem)
Amanda Murphy
What is the myelencephalon?
Most posterior division of the brain.
Reticular formation- plays active role in arousal.
Amanda Murphy
What is the metencephalon?
2 divisions: pons and cerebellum
Cerebellum: sensorimotor
Amanda Murphy
What is mesencephalon?
2 divisions:
Tectum- inferior colliculi (auditory) and superior colliculi (visual function)

Tegementum
Amanda Murphy
What is the diencephalon?
2 structures:
Thalamus- relaying sensation, spatial sense, and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, along with the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness
Hypothalamus- regulation of motivated behaviors, regulating release of hormones from pituitary glands
Amanda Murphy
What is the telencephalon?
Cerebral cortex, limbic system, basal ganglia, four lobes
Mediates brain's most complex functions
-initiates voluntary movement
Mediates complex cognitive functioning
Amanda Murphy
What makes up the limbic system?
Amygdala, Hippocampus, Fornix, Cingulate Cortex, Septum, Mammiliary bodies
Amanda Murphy
What is the function of the occiptial lobe?
Vision
Amanda Murphy
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
Analyzes sensations from body, perceiving location and directing attention
Amanda Murphy
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
Hearing, visual patterns, memory
Amanda Murphy
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
Motor and higher level cognition
Amanda Murphy
What regulates fear emotions?
Amygdala
Amanda Murphy
How are post-synaptic potentials triggered?
An action potential changes the voltage in the terminal buttons, opening up a Ca++ channel that allows the vesicles to bind to the presynaptic membrane where they dump the NT's into the synapse. The NT's then bind to receptors on the postysynaptic membrane which either excites or inhibits the neuron.
Amanda Murphy
How is an EPSP triggered?
A NT binds to a receptor on the postsynaptic membrane, which triggers the opening of Na+ channels that allow Na+ to rush in and depolarize the cell, reaching the threshold of excitation, which leads the cell to fire an action potential.
Amanda Murphy
How is an IPSP triggered?
A NT binds to a receptor on the postsynaptic membrane, which triggers the opening of a Cl- channel that allows Cl- to rush into the cell, or the opening of a K+ channel which allows K+ to leave the cell, hyperpolarizing the cell and inhibiting it from firing an action potential.
Amanda Murphy
What is nicotine?
An acetylcholine agonist that is the primary toxin in tobacco. It takes on the shape of Ach molecules and binds to Ach receptors.
Amanda Murphy
Are IPSP/EPSP's graded?
Yes, their amplitude is proportional to the intensity of the signals. They are also decremental.
Amanda Murphy
What is spatial summation?
When EPSP/IPSP's on different parts of the membrane are summed together.
Amanda Murphy
What is temporal summation?
When post-synaptic potentials are fired rapidly in succession they add together to be more powerful.
Amanda Murphy
What does the refractory period ensure?
That action potentials travel in one direction and that the rate of neural firing is related to the intensity of stimulation.
Amanda Murphy
Which are faster, action potentials or post-synaptic potentials?
Post-synaptic potentials
Amanda Murphy
What is the transmission of action potentials in myelinated axons called?
Saltatory conduction, and it is faster.
Amanda Murphy
What are metabotropic receptors?
Receptors associated with signal proteins and G proteins
Amanda Murphy
What are autoreceptors?
They are metabotropic receptors that
1. bind to their own neuron's neurotransmitters
2. located on the presynaptic membrane
-monitor levels of NT, stop release when levels are too high, start release when levels are too low.
Amanda Murphy
What are the amino acide neurotransmitters?
Glutamate, aspartate, glycine, GABA
Amanda Murphy
What is one of the differences between Schwann cells and Oligodendrocytes?
A schwann cell is found in the PNS, while oligodendrocytes myelinate axons in the CNS.
Alexa Hon
What are two excitatory Neurotransmitters?
Glutamate and Acetylcholine
Alexa Hon
What are two inhibatory Neurotransmitters?
GABA and glycine
Alexa Hon
How does nicotine affect dopamine?
Nicotine mimics acetylcholine and binds to the cholinergic receptor on dopamine neurons and greatly increases dopamine receptor activation.
Alexa Hon
What are the "specific effects" of alcohol?
Alcohol binds to GABA receptor and overstimulates a Cl- channel and also interferes with glutamate's ability to bind with glutamate NMDA receptors.
Alexa Hon
What is one of the differences between Schwann cells and Oligodendrocytes?
A schwann cell is found in the PNS, while oligodendrocytes myelinate axons in the CNS.
Alexa Hon
What are two excitatory Neurotransmitters?
Glutamate and Acetylcholine
Alexa Hon
What are two inhibatory Neurotransmitters?
GABA and glycine
Alexa Hon
How does nicotine affect dopamine?
Nicotine mimics acetylcholine and binds to the cholinergic receptor on dopamine neurons and greatly increases dopamine receptor activation.
Alexa Hon
What are the "specific effects" of alcohol?
Alcohol binds to GABA receptor and overstimulates a Cl- channel and also interferes with glutamate's ability to bind with glutamate NMDA receptors.
Alexa Hon
split-brain patients
patients whose left and right hemispheres have been separated by commissurotomy
Libby Johnson
Aphasia
deficit produced by brain damage in the ability to produce or comprehend language
Libby Johnson
Where did Broca find damage in aphasic patients?
inferior prefrontal cortex of left hemisphere. a.k.a. Broca's area
Libby Johnson
apraxia
deficit in performing movements when asked to perform them out of context
Libby Johnson
Cerebral dominance
theory that one hemisphere assumes dominant role in cognitive processes
Libby Johnson
Which hemisphere is dominant for language abilities in most individuals
Left
Libby Johnson
What is the largest cerebral commissure
corpus callosum
Libby Johnson
scotoma
area of blindness
Libby Johnson
What are 5 methods of studying lateralization of hemisphere function?
sodium amytal test, dichotic listening test, unilateral lesions, functional brain imaging, split-brain studies
Libby Johnson
Name 3 activities that the left hemisphere is generally superior at
Speech, Words/Letters, Ipsilateral Movement, Verbal memory, Arithmetic, Reading, Writing
Libby Johnson
Name 3 activities that the right hemisphere is generally superior at
Emotional content, understanding spatial contexts, recognizing faces/emotional expression, geometry, Musical ability
Libby Johnson
frontal operculum
area of the frontal lobe cortex that lies just in front of the face area of the primary motor cortex and holds to Broca's area
Libby Johnson
planum temporale
area of the temporal lobe cortex that is in the back of the lateral fissure; also known as Wernicke's area; involved in language comprehension
Libby Johnson
Heschl's gyrus
area of the temporal lobe cortex that is in the lateral fissure anterior to the planum temporale; serves as the primary auditory cortex
Libby Johnson
What area of the brain is associated with the ability for perfect pitch in some people?
planum temporale
Libby Johnson
what percentage of tumors in the human brain are meningiomas?
20%
Libby Johnson
encapsulated tumors
tumors that grow within their own membrane
Libby Johnson
infiltrating tumors
tumors that grow diffusely through surrounding tissue; usually malignant
Libby Johnson
neuromas
tumors that grow on nerves or tracts
Libby Johnson
infarct
area of dead or dying tissue caused by a stroke
Libby Johnson
What are microelectrodes?
Intracellular electrodes
Jacqueline Amadi
What are the two homogenizing factors?
Concentration gradient & electrostatic pressure
Jacqueline Amadi
What are graded responses?
This means that the amplitudes of responses are proportional to the intensity of the signals that elicit them
Jacqueline Amadi
What are the two characteristics of PSP transmission?
It is rapid (fast) & decremental (decreases in amplitude as it travels)
Jacqueline Amadi
Are action potentials graded responses?
No, they are all or none responses
Jacqueline Amadi
Cerebellum
Refines Motor Movements
Emily Harn
Tectum: Superior Colliculi
visual movements
Emily Harn
Tectum: Inferior Colliculi
auditory movements
Emily Harn
Reticular Formation:
Controls arousals
Emily Harn
Thalamus
sensory relay station
Emily Harn
Hypothalamus
Regulates motivated behaviors: eating sleeping, sex
Emily Harn
Pituitary
"master gland" and responds to signals from the hypothalamus
Emily Harn
Amygdala
threat detection, anticipation of harm
Emily Harn
Limbic System:
regulates motivated behavior: fight/flight, eating, sex
Emily Harn
Basal Ganglia
Voluntary movements
Emily Harn
Nucleus Accumben
addiction and reward system
Emily Harn
Forebrain
Telencephalon and Diencephalon
Emily Harn
Telencephalon
Cerebral Cortex
Emily Harn
Cerebral Cortex
Basal Ganglia, Limbic System, and Neocortex
Emily Harn
Basal Ganglia
aka: subcortical
amygdala
caudate nucleus + putamen = striatum
globus palladus
Emily Harn
Diencephalon
Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Pituitary
Emily Harn
Midbrain
Mesencephalon
Emily Harn
Mesencephalon
Tectum and Tegmentum
Emily Harn
Tectum
orients toward movements (superior) and sounds (inferior)
Emily Harn
Tegmentum
reticular formation (arousal)
Emily Harn
Hindbrain
Metencephalon and Myencephalon
Emily Harn
Metencephalon
cerebellum and pons
Emily Harn
Cerebellum
"little brain" that helps regulate sensorimotor and complex motor skill
Emily Harn
Pons
"bridge" between the 2 hemispheres
Emily Harn
Myencephalon
Medulla
Emily Harn
Medulla
controls autonomic functions such as blood pressure and respiration

- Reticular Formation also part of hindbrain and midbrain area
Emily Harn
Pyramidal Cells
multipolar specialized for sending motor signals

(need muscle movements to build a pyramid)
Emily Harn
Stellate Cells
specialized for receiving sensory information

(looks like satellite...and satellite dishes receive signals for you to see)
Emily Harn
Spatial Summation
Net effect of IPSP and EPSP from multiple synapses
Emily Harn
Temporal Summation
Net effect of IPSP and EPSP from rate of firing
Emily Harn