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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is stress?
A person's response to events that are threatening or challenging.
What are psychophysiologial disorders?
Medical problems influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties.
What is general adaptation syndrome (GAS)?
A theory developed by Selye that suggests that a person's response to a stressor consists of three stages: alarm and mobilization, resistance, and exhaustion.
What are the major stages of GAS?
Alarm and mobilization: meeting and resisting a stressor.
Resistance: coping with stress and resistance to a stressor.
Exhaustion: negative consequences of stress (such as illness) occur when coping is inadequate.
What is psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)?
The study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain.
What are the three major types of consequences that result from stress?
Direct physiological effects, harmful behaviors, and indirect health-related behaviors.
What are symptoms of direct physiological effects?
Elevated blood pressure
Decrease in immune system funcitoning
Increased hormonal activity
Psychophysiological conditions
What are symptoms of harmful behaviors?
Increased smoking, alcohol use
Decreased nutrition
Decreased sleep
Increased drug use
What are indirect health-related behaviors?
Decreased compliance with medical advice
Increase in delays in seeking medical advice
Decrease in likelihood of seeking medical advice
What is health psychology?
The branch of psychology that investigates the psychologial factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems.
What are cataclysmic events?
Strong stressors that occur suddenly, affecting manyp people at once (natural disasters).
What are personal stressors?
Major life events, such as the death of a family member, that have immediate negative consequences that generally fade with time.
What is Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
A phenomenon in which victims of major catastrophes or strong personal stressors feel longlasting effects that may include reexperiencing the event in vivid flashbacks or dreams.
What are background stressors (daily hassles)?
Everyday annoyances, such as being stuck in traffic, that cause minor irritations and may have long term ill effects if they continue or are compounded by other stressful events.
What are the three categories of stressors?
Cataclysmic events
Personal stressors
Background stressors
What are uplifts?
Minor positive events that make on feel good.
What is learned helplessness?
A state in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled- a view of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances, even if they actually can exert some influence.
What is coping?
Efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress.
What are defense mechanisms?
Unconscious strategies people use to reduce anxiety by concealing its source from themselves and others.
What is one type of defense mechanism?
Emotional insulation, a person stops experiencing any emotions at all, thereby remaining unaffected and unmoved by both positive and negative experiences.
What are the two categories of coping strategies?
Emotion-focused coping and Problem-focused coping
What is emotion-focused coping?
People try to manaage their emotions in the face of stress, seeking to change the way they feel about or perceive a problem.
What is problem-focused coping?
Attemps to modify the stressful problem or source of stress.
What is hardiness?
A personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness, consisting of three components: commitment, challenge, and control.
What is commitment?
A tendency to throw ourselves into whatever we are doing with a sense that our activities are important and meaningful.
What is challenge in relation to hardiness?
Hardy people believe that change, rather than stability, is the standard condition of life. To them, the anticipation of change serves as an incentive rather than a threat to their security.
What is control in relation to hardiness?
Hardiness is marked by a sense of control- the perception that people can influence the events in their lives.
What is social support?
A mutual network of caring, interested others.
What are some guidelines for coping with stress?
Turn a threat into a challenge. Make a threating situation less threatening. Change your goals. Take physical action. Prepare for stress before it happens. defined as a response to challenging or threatening events.
Alarm and mobilization is...
Activation of sympathetic nervous system.
Exhaustion is...
Ability to adapt to stress diminishes; symptoms appear.
Resistance is...
Various strategies are used to cope with a stressor.
Stressors that affect a single person and produce an immediate major reaction are known as
Personal stressors
People with the personality characteristic of ... seem to be better able to successfully combat stressors.
What is a type A behavior pattern?
A pattern of behavior characterized by competitiveness, impatience, a tendency toward frustration, and hostility.
What is a type B behavior pattern?
A pattern of behavior characterized by cooperation, patience, noncompetitiveness, and nonaggression.
Type ... behavior is characterized by cooperativeness and by being easy going. Type ... behavior is characterized by aggression and competitiveness.
True or False..
Type A behavior is known to directly cause heart attacks.
False, Type A behavior is related to a higher incidence of coronary heart disease but does not necessarily cause it directly.
A cancer patient's attitude and emotions may affect that person's ... system, helping or hindering the patient's fight against disease.
True or false
Smoking is used to regulate both nicotene levels and emotional states in smokers.
What is reactance?
A disagreeable emotional and cognitive reaction that results from the restriction of one's freedom and that can be associated with medical regimens.
What is subjective well-being?
People's won evaluation of their lives in terms of both their thoughts and their emotions.
What are some characteristics that happy people share?
Happy people have high self-esteem.
Happy people have a firm sense of control.
Happy individuals are optimistic.
Happy people like to be around other people.
Health psychologists are most likely to focus on which of the following problems with health care?
Ineffective communication between physician and patient.
If you wish for people to floss more to prevent gum disease, the best approach is to...
Use a negatively framed message
Winning the lottery is likely to
Produce an immediate, but not lingering, increase in the level of well-being.
circumstances that produce threats to well-being.
Alarm and mobilization
a person's initial awareness of the presence of a stressor.
Immune system
The body's natural defenses that fight disease.
Psychophysiological disorders
medical problems caused by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties.
the stage of coping with stressors.
Emotion-focused coping
The conscious regulation of emotion as a means of dealing with stress.
Problem-focused coping
The management of stressful stimulus as a way of dealing with stress.
Characterized by control, challenge, and commitment.
Type A behavior pattern
Characterized by competitiveness, impatience, a tendency toward frustration, and hostility.
Type B behavior pattern
Characterized by noncompetitiveness, nonaggression, and patience in times of potential stress.
Creative nonadherence
Patient adjusts a treatment prescribed by a physician relying on their own medical judgment.
Negative emotional and cognitive reaction that results from the restriction of one's freedom.
Subjective well-being
People evaluate their lives based on thoughts and emotions.
Patient discontinues medication, misses appointments, doesn't follow treatment.
Increase of compliance
Patient is friendly and satisfied with a physician.