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442 Cards in this Set

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the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
psychology
founder of modern psychology
Wilhelm Wundt
Founder of Structuralism
E.B. Tichener
Theory that analyzed the basic elements of thoughts and sensations to determine the structure of conscious experience.
structuralism
psychological perspective that emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
Gestalt psychology
First american psychologist and author of the first psychology textbook
William James
theory that emphasized the functions of consciousness and the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment
functionalism
founder of psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud
School of thought that focuses on how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts; contemporary version is called psychodynamic perspective
psychoanalytic perspective
Russian psychologist who showed that animals learn some things through association
Ivan Pavlov
Founder of behaviorism
John B. Watson
School of thought that focuses on how we learn observable responses
Behaviorist perspective
American psychologist whose brand of behaviorism focused on the role of responses in learning
b.f. skinner
school of thought that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual's freedom to choose, and capacity for personal growth
humanistic psychology
leader in the humanistic psychology movement
abraham maslow
leader in the humanistic movement
carl rogers
developmental and cognitive psychologist known for his studies of children's thought processes
jean piaget
first american man to earn a phd in psychology; opened first psych lab in the us; founded, and was first president of APA
G. Stanley Hall
first woman to complete the requirements for a phd in pscyh; first woman to be elected president of APA
Mary Whiton Calkins
First woman to receive a PHD in psychology
Margaret Floy Washburn
First African American Man to receive a phd in psychology
Francis Cecil Sumner
First African American woman to receive a phd in psych
Inez Beverly Prosser
a particular view of behavior and/or mental processes that has gionrown into a movement
psychological perspective
school of thought that focuses on how we take in, process, store, and retrieve information
cognitive perspective
school of thought that focuses on the physical structures and substances underlying a particular behavior, thought, or emotion
biological perspective
school of thought that focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in different contexts or situations
social-cultural perspective
school of thought that focues on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
behavior genetics
movement that focuses on the study of optimal human functioning and the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive
positive psychology
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
basic research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
applied research
a method of learning about the world through the application of critical thinking and tools such as observation, experimentation, and statistical analysis
scientific method
a tendency for researchers to engage in behaviors and selectively notice evidence that supports their hypotheses or expectations
researcher bias
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather, it examines assumptions, dscerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
critical thinking
a tendency for researcher participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed or they believe they know what the researcher wants
participant bias
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
naturalistic observation
a research technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
case study
a research project designed to discover the degree to which two variables are related to each other
correlational study
a research technique designed to discover the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a sample of people through the use of questionaires or interviews
survey method
all the cases in a group, crom which samples may be drawn for a study
population
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
random sample
a research technique that studies the same group of individuals over a long period of time
longitudinal study
a research technique that compares individuals from different age groups at one time
cross-sectional study
a research method in which the researcher manipulates one or more factors (indie variables) to observe the effect on another variable (dependent var) while controlling for confounding variables
experiment
an investigator's testable prediction about the outcome of a research
hypothesis
a specification of the exact procedures used to make a variable specific and measurable for research purposes
operational definition
the research variable that a researcher actively manipulates, and if the hypothesis is correct, will cause a change in the dependent variable
indie variable (IV)
the research variable that is influenced by the independent variable. in psych, the behavior or mental process where the impact of the indie variable is measured
depenedent variable (DV)
the participants in an experiment who are exposed to the treatment, that is, the indie var
experimental group
the participants in an experiment who are not exposed to the indi var. these individuals function as a comparison for the experimental group participants
control gorup
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by change, thus minimizing preexisting differences among those assigned to different groups
random assignment
in an experiment, a variable, other than the indie variable, that could influence the dependent variable. must be used to draw cause and effect conclusions from an experiment
confounding variable
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant as to the expected outcome of the research. this procedure is used to control for the effects of expectation as a confounding variable.
double-blind procedure
a nonactive substance or condition thats administered instead of a drug or active agent to see if the drug has an effect beyond the expectations produced by taking it
placebo
repeating a research study to see whether the results can be reliably reproduced. unless a study can be replicated, the results are likely to be a fluke occurrence.
replication
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
behavior genetics
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the crhomosomes; a segment of dna
genes
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
environment
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
chromosomes
a complex molecule containing genetic info that makes up the chromosomes
dna (deoxyribnucleic acid)
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes
genome
random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the individual's genetic code; the source of all genetic diversity
mutation
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
evolutionary psycohlogy
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
natural selection
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
identical twins
twins who develop from separate eggs. they are genetically no closer than any other brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment
fraternal twins
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
heritability
the shared attitudes, beliefs, norms, and behaviors of a group communicated from one generation to the next
culture
understood rules for accepted and expected behavior; norms prescribe proper behavior
norms
giving prority to one's own goals over group gorals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification
individualism
giving priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly
collectivism
the fertilized egg; it enters a two week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
zygote
the biochemical units of heredity that direct how our cells become specialized for various functions during prenatal development
genes
the developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the end of the 8th week
embryo
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
fetus
substances that cross the placental barrier and prevent the fetus from developing normally
teratogens
a series of physical and cognitive abnormalities that appear in children whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while prgnant. sympotoms include noticeable facial misproportions
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple; this is an automatic, unlearned response
rooting reflex
biological growth processes that enable orderly chagnes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
maturation
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering
cognition
concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information
schemas
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
assimilation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
accomodation
in piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to 2 years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impresions and motor activities
sensorimotor stage
the awareness that things continue to exist even when you cannot see or hear them
object permanence
in piaget's theory, the stage from 2 to 7 years during which a child learns ot use language but doesn't yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
preoperational stage
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and # remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
conservation
in piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view
egocentrism
in piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development from 6 to 11 years during which children gain the mental skills that let them think logically about concrete events
concrete operational stage
in piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (beginning about 12) during which ppl begin to think logically about abstract concepts and form strategies
formal operational stage
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
stranger anxiety
an emotional tie with another person; young children demonstrate attachment by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
attachment
psychologist who researched the relationship of body contact and nourishment to attachment, using infant monkeys and artificial mothers
Harry Harlow
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
critical period
research who focused on critical attachment periods in baby birds, a concept he called imprinting
Konrad Lorenz
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
imprinting
style of parenting marked by imposing rules and expecting obedience
authoritarian parenting
style of parenting makred by submitting to children's desires, making few demands, and using little punishment
permissive parenting
a style of parenitng marked by making demands on the child, being responsive, setting and enforcing rules, and discussing the reasons behind the rules
authoritative parenting
the transition from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
adolescence
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
puberty
the body structures (ovaries, testes, external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
primary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
secondary sex characteristics
an enduring sexual attraction toward memebers of either the other gender or one's own gender
sexual orientation
created a three-stage theory of moral development
Lawrence Kohlberg
Created an 8 stage theory of social development; author of the psychosocial developmental stage theory
Erik Erikson
One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
identity
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving, open relationships, a primary task in early adulthood
intimacy
the culturally preferred timing of social events sucuh as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
social clock
the time of natural cessation of menstruation
menopause
a progrsesive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning
Alzheimer's disease
the mental disintegration that accompanies alcoholism, tumor, stroke, aging, and most often, Alzheimer's disease
senile dementia
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
fluid intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
crystallized intelligence
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
neuron
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body (soma)
dendrite
the cell body of a neuron, which contains the nucleus and other parts that keep the cell healthy
soma
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
puberty
the body structures (ovaries, testes, external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
primary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
secondary sex characteristics
an enduring sexual attraction toward memebers of either the other gender or one's own gender
sexual orientation
created a three-stage theory of moral development
Lawrence Kohlberg
Created an 8 stage theory of social development; author of the psychosocial developmental stage theory
Erik Erikson
One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
identity
In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving, open relationships, a primary task in early adulthood
intimacy
the culturally preferred timing of social events sucuh as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
social clock
the time of natural cessation of menstruation
menopause
a progrsesive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning
Alzheimer's disease
the mental disintegration that accompanies alcoholism, tumor, stroke, aging, and most often, Alzheimer's disease
senile dementia
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
fluid intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
crystallized intelligence
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
neuron
the bushy branching extensions of a neruon that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body (soma)
dendrite
the cell body of a neuron that contains the nucleus and other parts that keep the cell healthy
soma
the extensions of a neuron through which neural impulses are sent
axon
the endpoint of a neuron, where neurotransmitters are stored
axon terminal
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron
action potential
the recharging phase when a neuron, after firing, can't generate another action potential
refractory period
the state of a neuron when its at rest and capable of generating an action potential
resting potential
the principle stating that if a neuron fires it always fires at the same intensity all action potentials are the same strength
all-or-none principle
the tiny, fluid filled gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another
synapse
a chemical messenger that travels across the synapse from one neuron to the next and influences whether a neuron will generate an action potential (impulse)
neurotransmitter
a neurotransmitter effect that makes it more likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential
excitatory effect
a neurotransmitter effect that makes it less likely that areceiving neuron will generate an impulse
inhibitory effect
specialized cells in the sensory systems of the body that can turn other kinds of energy into impulses that the nervous system can process
receptor cells
nerves that carry information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
sensory nerves
nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord responsible for processing information related to sensory input and motor output
interneurons
nerves that carry information to the muscles and glands from the central nervous system
motor nerves
a neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction and affects learning and memory and alzhimer's disease
acetylcholine
a drug that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter
antagonist
a drug that boosts the effect of a neurotransmtter
agonist
a neurotransmitter that affects learning, attention, and emotion; excess dopamine activity is associated with schizophrenia
dopamine
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger, sleep, arouusal, and mood; serotonin appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons
serotonin
the brain and the spinal cord
central nervous system (cns)
the sensory and motor nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs. its subdivisions are the sympathetic (arousing) division and the parasympathetic (calming) division
autonomic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats
sympathetic division
the part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body
parasypmathetic division
one of the body's 2 communication systems; a set of glands that produce hormones
endocrine system
chemical messengers produced by the endocrine glands and circulated in the blood
hormone
the endocrine system's highly influential master gland that in conjunction with the brain controls the other endocrine glands
pituitary gland
nerves that carry information to the muscles and glands from the central nervous system
motor nerves
a neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction and affects learning and memory and alzhimer's disease
acetylcholine
a drug that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter
antagonist
a drug that boosts the effect of a neurotransmtter
agonist
a neurotransmitter that affects learning, attention, and emotion; excess dopamine activity is associated with schizophrenia
dopamine
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger, sleep, arouusal, and mood; appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons
serotonin
the brain and the spinal cord
central nervous system (cns)
the sensory and motor nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs. its subdivisions are the sympathetic (arousing) division and the parasympathetic (calming) division
autonomic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats
sympathetic division
the part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body
parasypmathetic division
one of the body's 2 communication systems; a set of glands that produce hormones
endocrine system
chemical messengers produced by the endocrine glands and circulated in the blood
hormone
the endocrine system's highly influential master gland that in conjunction with the brain controls the other endocrine glands
pituitary gland
endocrine gland that helps regulate energy level in the body
thyroid gland
endocrine glands that help to arouse the body in times of stress
adrenal glands
oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; becomes responsible for automatic survival functions
brainstem
base of brainstem; controls lifesupport fxns ie heartbeat breathing
medulla
nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling wakefulness and arousal
reticular formation
brain's sensory switchboard located on top of the brainstem; directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex
thalamus
the little brain attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance
cerebellum
a ring of structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral cortex; helps regulate important functions ie memory, fear, aggression, hunger, thirst. includes hypothalamus, hippocampus, nd amygdala.
limbic system
neural structure below thalamus; directs maintenance activities ie eating, drinking, body temp and linked to emotion
hypothalamus
a neural center located in the limbic system; it helps process new memories for permanent storage
hippocampus
2 almond-shaped neural clusters in the limbic system that are linked to emotions, such as feare and anger
amygdala
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that form the cerebbral hemispheres; body's ultimate control and info processing center
cerebral cortex
the long crack running all the way from the front to the back of the cerebral cortex, separating the left and right hemispheres
longitudin fissure
large band of neural fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres and carries messages between them
corpus callosum
a brain area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
motor cortex
a brain area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
somatosensory cortex
a brain area of the frontal lobe, ususally in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
broca's area
a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
wernicke's area
brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage esp. in children
plasticity
process by which our sensory systems and nervous system receive stimuli from our environment
sensation
information processing that focuses on the raw material entering through our eyes, ears, and other organs of sensation
bottom up processing
process of organizing and interpreting sensory info
perception
info processing that focuses on our expectations and experiences in interpreting incoming sensory info
top down processing
min stimulation needed to detec a particular stimulus
absolute threshold
just noticeable difference - min difference that a person can detect between two stimuli
difference threshold
set formulas and principles that predict when we will detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background noise. depends on qualities of the stimulus, envrionment, and person detecting
signal detection theory
diminished sensitivity as a result of constant stimulation
sensory adaptation
focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus to the exclusion of others
selective attention
an energy spectrum that includes xrays, radar, radio waves, etc.
electromagnetic energy
color of light; determined by wavelength of light energy
hue
height of a wave
amplitude
the chemical receptor cells for smell, located in the nasal passages
olfactory cells
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
kinesthetic sense
the system for sensing body orientation and balance, located in the semicircular canals of the inner ear
vestibular sense
the whole or the organizational patterns that we tend to perceive; the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
gestalt
the organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings
figure-ground
perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into understandable groups
grouping
place items taht look similar in the same group
similarity
if objects are close together, place them in the same group
proximity
brains tendency to look for the whole, not the parts, drives us to fill in the gaps in the perceptual field
closure
ability to see in 3 dimensions and judge distance
depth perception
a lab device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
visual cliff
depth cues that require the use of both eyes
binocular cues
depth cues that require the use of only one eye
monocular cues
a binocular depth cue resulting from slightly different images produced by the separation of the retinas in the left and right eyes
retinal disparity
a binocular depth cue related to the tensino in the eye muscles when the eyes track inward to focus on objects close to the viewer
convergence
a mental predisposition to perceive something one way and not another
perceptual set
concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret info
schemas
setting or environment in which we interpret sensory stimuli
context
controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input
extrasensory perception (ESP)
the three types of esp
precognition - knowledge of the future
telepathy
clairvoyance - ability to see distant events
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
motivation
a complex, unlearned behavior thats rigidly patterned throughout a species
instinct
in drive-reduction theory, aroused tensions states created by imbalances that prompt an organism to restore the balance, typically by reducing teh drive
drives
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
drive-reduction theory
the theory that a degree of psychological arousal helps performance, but only up to a certain point
Yerkes Dodson Law
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
homeostasis
a desire to perform a behavior because of promised rewards or threats of punishment
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
intrinsic motivation
the need to live up to one's fullest and unique potential according to maslow
self-actualization
desire for significant accomplishment, attaining a high standard
achievement motivation
Neo-freudian who first established the concept of achivement motivation and also developed important personality testing tools
Henry Murray
goal oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, focuses attention
task leadership
group oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflic, and offers support
social leadership
the point at which an individual's weight thermostat is supposedly set. when body falls below this rate, increased hunger and lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
set point
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
basal metabolic rate
anorexic's name
anorexia nervosa
bulimia
bulimia nervosa
whole organism responses, involving physsiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience
emotion
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to an emotion arousing stimulus
James-Lange theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emtoion
cannon-bard theory
the american psycholoogists who made up the two-factor theory
stanley schacter and jerome singer
the theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused, and cognitively label the arousal
two-factor theory
american psychologist who concluded that some emotional reactions involve no deliberate thinking and cognition is not always necessary for emotion
robert zajonc
american psychologist who concluded that some emotional responses don't require conscious thought
richard lazarus
process by which we perceive and respond to certain events,called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
stress
a subfield of psychology that focuses on how stress affects our wellbeing and our health
health psychology
Psychologist who researched a recurring response to stress that he called the general adaptation syndrome
Hans Selye
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in 3 stages - alarm, resistance, exhaustion
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion brought on by persistent job-related stress
burnout
American psychologist and proponent of positive psychology
Martin Seligman
the common result of a healthy lifestyle and healthy attitudes
wellness
subfield of psychology that focuses on the study of optimal human functioning and the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive
positive psychology
a state of optimal experience; for flow to ccur, the experiences must be a challenge requiring skill, have clear goals, and provide feedback
flow
the habits we have for thinking about the good or bad causes of events
explanatory style
the belief that bad events are temporary, not your fault, won't have broader effects beyond present circumstances
optimism
the opposite of optimism, tendency to expect worse
pessimism
the discomfort adn distress that follows discontinuning the use of an addictive drug
withdrawal
a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience; aka conditioning
learning
type of learning where a stimulus gains the power to cause a response because it predicts another stimulus that already produces the response
classical conditioning
anything in the environment that one can respond to
stimulus
any behavior or action
response
view that psychology should restrict its efforts to studying observable behaviors, not mental processes
behaviorism
founder of behaviorism
john watson
mental processes; all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering
cognition
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that triggers a response automatically and reflexively
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
in classical conditioning, atuomatic resposne to UCS
unconditioned response ucr
a previously neutral stimulus that, through learning, has gained power to cause a conditioned response
CS conditioned stimulus
response to CS conditioned stimulus
conditioned response CR
in classical conditioning, process of deeveloping a learned response
acquisition
in classical conditioning, the diminishing of a learned response; when a UCS doesn't follow a CS
extinction
reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
spontaneous recovery
process in which an organism produces same response to 2 similar stimuli
generalization
process in which an organism produces different responses to 2 similar stimuli
discrimination
founded taste aversion, which established that classical conditioning was influenced by biological predispositions
john garcia and robert koelling
developed with allan wagner a new theory that emphasized the importance of cognitive processes in classical conditioning
robert rescorla and allan wagner
a type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behavior
operant conditioning
author of the law of effect, the principle that forms the basis of operant conditioning
edward thorndike
developed fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning
bf skinner
any consequence that increases the likelihood of a behavior
reinforcement
any consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior
punishment
anything that increases the likelyhood of a behavior by following it with a desirable event or state
positive reinforment
anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or state
negative reinforcement
something naturally reinforcing ie food, warmth, water
primary reinforcement
something that is learned to value ie money
secondary reinforcement
reinforcement of behaviors that are more and more similar to the one you want to occur. the operant technique used to establish new behaviors
shaping
ability to distinguish between two similar signals/stimlui
discrimination
loss of a behavior when no consequence follows it in operant
extinction
a schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows every correct response
continuous reinforcement
a schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows only some correct responses
partial reinforcement schedule
learning that occurs but isn't apparent until the learner has an incentive to demonstrate it
latent learning
a mental represenation fo a place
cognitive map
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. reward may lessen and replace the perosn's original, natural motivaiton, so that the behavior stops if the reward is eliminated
overjustificatio neffect
learning by observing others
observational learning
person observed in observational learning
model
process of observing and imitating a specfic behavior
modeling
a major figure in observational learning
albert bandura
Attention
Retention
Ability to reproduce behavior
Motivation
aware of surrounding behavior
remembering behavior
ability to do the behavior
motivated if model observed is rewarded
negative, destructive unhelpful behavior
antisocial behavior
positive, constructive helpful behavior
prosocial
three basic steps of information processing model
encoding, storage, retrieval
process of getting info into memory system. first stage of info processing model
encoding
retention of encoded info over time. second stage
storage
process of getting information out of memory storage. third stage of ino processing model of memory
retrieval
unconscious encoding of some info such as space time frequency without effort
automatic processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
effortful processing
conscious repetition of info
rehearsal
german philsopher who conducted pioneering memory studies
hermann ebbinghaus
rehearshal of info beyond where it has been learned. effective strategy for improving memory
overlearning
a memory trick or technique
mnemonic device
a mnemonic device in which you associate items you want to remember with imagniary places
method of loci
mnemonic device associate items with a list of peg words you already memorized
peg-word system
organizing info into meaningful units
chunking
working memory
short term memory
relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
longterm memory
memory of facts and experiences that one must consciously retrieve and declare
explicit memory
memory of skills and procedures like how to walk without conscious recollection
implicit memory
a measure of memoery in which you must retrieve info you learned earlier, fill in the blank
recall
measure of memory in which you must identify items you learned earlier, multiple choice
recognition
the enhanced ability to retrieve info when your in an environment similar to the one in which you encoded the info
context effect
longeterm memories that are especially resistant to forgetting and are likely to last a lifetime
permastore memory
disruptive effect of earlier learning on the recall of recently stored info
proactive interference
disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously stored info
retroactive interference
process of moving anxiety prodcuing memories to the unconscious
repression
incorporating misleading ino into one's momery of an event
misinformation effect
awareness of yourself and your environment
consciousness
any assertion not based on science
pseudoscientific claim
periodic physiological fluctuations
biological rhythms
biological rhythyms such as temperature that occur approx every 24 hours
circadian rhythms
biological rhthyms that occur more than once each day
ultradian rhythms
biological rhythms that occur once month or once a season
infradian rhythms
sleep researcher who coined the term REM
william dement
a hormone that helps regulate daily biological rhythyms
melatonin
bursts of brainwave activity that characterize stage 2 of n-rem sleep
spindles
stages 3 and 4 of n-rem sleep; slow delta waves; is minimal during last 4 hours of sleep
delta sleep
the period of sleep in which sleep stages 1-4 occur; not characterized by eye movement or vivid dreams
n-rem sleep (non-rapid eye movement)
recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur; aka paradoxxical sleep muscles are relaxed but body systems are active
rem sleep rapid eye movement
sleep disorder characterized by temp cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings
sleep apnea
sleepwalking; in stages of n-rem sleep
somnambulism
sleep-related problem characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; occur in stage 4 sleep within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep and seldom remembered
night terrors
theory that powerful social influences can produce a state of hypnosis
social influence theory
theory that during hypnosis, our consciousness splits so that one aspect of consciousness is not aware of the other parts
divided consciousness theory
a chemical substance that alters perceptions, mood, behavior
psychoactive drug
state of physiological/psychological need to take more of a substance
dependence
discomfort and dsitress that follows dependcey on a drug thats discontinued
withdrawal
reduced responsiveness to a drug, prompting to increase dosage
tolerance
psycho active drugs get into your synapses and affect neurotrans in 3 ways
binding with receptors (mimick neurotrans effects); blocking receptor sites (preventing neurotrans from binding); blocking neurotrans reabsportion
5 classifcations of psychoactive drugs
depressants, opiates, stimulants, ahllucinogens, amrijuana
drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body function; name them
depressants; alcohol and sedatives
drugs that depress activity of cns, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment; are sedatives
barbiturates
drugs that depress activity of cns without most of the side effects associated with barbiturates
benzodiazepines; ex: Valium
opium and its derivatives; depress neural activity and temp lessen pain and anxiety
opium such as morphine and heroin
strong sedative and pain-relieving drug from opium
morphine
natural opiatelike neurotrans linked to pain control and to pleasure "morphine within"
endorphins
drugs that excited neural activity and speed up body functions; name them
stimulants; caffeine, nicotine, and powerful amphetamines and cocaine
stimulant found in coffee, chocolate, tea, and soft drinks
caffeine
stimulant derived from leaves of the cocoa plant
cocaine
drugs that stimultae neural activity, speeding up body fxns and associated energy and mood changes; mimic adrenaline, aka...
amphetamines: speed, uppers
crystal, crank; more potent than regular amphetamines; ice
methamphetamines
psychedelic mind manifesting drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
hallucinogens
powerful hallucinogenic drug aka acid
lsd (lysergic acid diethylamide)
aka mdma, hallucinogenic drug produces lowered inhibitions, pleasant feelings, and greater acceptance of otehrs. may result in perma brain damage
ecstasy
leaves stems resin and flowers from the hemp plant that when smoked lower inhibitions and produce feelings of relaxation and mild euphoria
marijuana
a mental grouping based on shared similarity
concept
a typical best example incorporating the major features of a concept
prototype
a problem solving strategy that guarantees the solution to the problem
algorithm
a rule of thumb problem solving strategy that makes a solution more likely and efficient but doesn't guarantee a solution
heuristic
sudden realization of the solution to a problem
insight
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way.
may may not be helpful in solving a new problem
mental set
mental set that hinders the solution of a problem
fixation
tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual fxns; impediment to problem solving
functional fixedness
tendency to focus on info that supports one's preconceptions
confirmation bias
estimating likelihood of events based on availability in memory.
availability heuristic
tendency to be more confident that correct when estimating the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
overconfidence
way an issue is worded or presented; can influence decisions and judgments
framing
clinging to one's intial beliefs even after new info discredits the basis on which they were formed
belief perseverance
spoke, written, or gestured words and ways we combine them to communicate meaning
language
linguist who argues children ahve a predisposition to learn language; hardwired to pick up vocab and grammar
noam chomsky
noam chomskybelieved children learned language through associations, imitation, and reinforcement
b.f. skinner
linguist who developed the linguistic relativity hypothesis
ben whorf
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
linguistic relativity hypothesis
ability to learn from experience, solve probs, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
intelligence
author of contemporary theory of multiple intelligences consiting of 8 separate kinds of intelligence
howard gardner
author of contemporary theory of multiple intelligences consisting of analytical, creative, and practical intelligence
robert sternberg
ability to perceive, express, understand, regulate emotions
emotional intelligence
a factor that spearman believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
general intelligence
developed first test to classify chilodren's abilities using the concept of mental age
alfred binet
the chronological age that corresponds to the difficulty level of the questions children can answer.
mental age
actual age.
chronological age
adapted binet's tests for use in the US as the stanford-binet intelligence test, which reported intelligence as a calculated IQ score.
lewis terman
widely used american revision (by terman at stanford u) of binet's original test
stanford-binet intelligence test
number that results from terman and stern's formula: mental age divided by chronological age times 100
IQ intelligence quotient
a series of intelligence tests tailored to 3 different age groups;
Wechsler intelligence scales
orginially developed by US army, administered by teachers in classrooms; not as reliable as individual tests
group intelligence tests
tests that attempt to measure what the test-taker has accomplished
achievement tests
a problem solving strategy that guarantees the solution to the problem
algorithm
a rule of thumb problem solving strategy that makes a solution more likely and efficient but doesn't guarantee a solution
heuristic
sudden realization of the solution to a problem
insight
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way.
may may not be helpful in solving a new problem
mental set
mental set that hinders the solution of a problem
fixation
tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual fxns; impediment to problem solving
functional fixedness
tendency to focus on info that supports one's preconceptions
confirmation bias
estimating likelihood of events based on availability in memory.
availability heuristic
tendency to be more confident that correct when estimating the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
overconfidence
way an issue is worded or presented; can influence decisions and judgments
framing
clinging to one's intial beliefs even after new info discredits the basis on which they were formed
belief perseverance
spoke, written, or gestured words and ways we combine them to communicate meaning
language
linguist who argues children ahve a predisposition to learn language; hardwired to pick up vocab and grammar
noam chomsky
noam chomskybelieved children learned language through associations, imitation, and reinforcement
b.f. skinner
linguist who developed the linguistic relativity hypothesis
ben whorf
french phsyican ho worked to refrom treatment of people with mental disorders
Philippe Pinel
DSM-IV-TR
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
a vague feeling of apprehension or nervousness
anxiety
disruptive levels of persisent, unexplained feelings of apprehension and tenseness
generalized anxiety disorder
sudden bouts of intense, unexplained panic
panic disorder
dissociative disorder characterized by loss of memory in reaction to a traumatic event
dissociative amnesia
dissocitiave idsorder characterized by loss of identity and travel to a new location
dissociative fugue
disorder - disorganized and delusional thinking , disturbed perceptions, inapproapriate emotions and actions
schizophrenia
false beliefs - symptoms of schizophrenia
delusions
false perceptions
hallucinations
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and lasting behavior patterns that disrupt social functioning
personality behaviors
treatment of psychological disorders that involves changing the brain's functioning by using prescribed drugs, electroconvulsvie therapy, and surgery
biomedical therapy
release of patients from mental hospitals to the community at large. as a result of the development of drug treatments. 80%
deinstitutionalization
a category of medications used primarily to treat schizophrenia
antipsychotic drugs
a category of medications used to treat people with anxiety disorders or suffering stress
antianxiety drug
a category of medications used primarily to treat major depression
antidepressant drugs
a therapy for major depression in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anethetized patient
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or person's disposition
attribution theory
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
fundamental attribution error
tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
foot-in-door phenomenon
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two fo our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. for ex. when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
cognitive dissonance
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
conformity
social psychologist who researched circumstances under which people conform
solomon asch
social psychologist who researched obediencey to authority
stanley milgram
tendency to comply with orders, implied or real, from someone perceived as an authority
obedience
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs iwth simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet learned
social facilitation