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20 Cards in this Set

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The disruption of language caused by a brain-related disorder. Always the product of some sort of physical injury to the brain, either brain damage sustained in an accident or blow to the head, or diseases and medical syndromes such as a stroke. Language disruptions observed in aphasic patients can also help us understand language and its neurological basis.
Broca's Aphasia (1982) Kertesz
Characterized by severe difficulties in producing speech. Patients with this show speech that is hesitant, effortful, and phonemically distorted. Usually respond to questions with one word answers. Show less impairment of comprehension, for both spoken and written language. Identified as damage to located toward the rear of the left frontal lobe is thus called Broca's Region. This region lies very close to a major motor control center in the brain, which very likely accounts for the motor difficulties typical of the aphasia.
Wernicke's Aphasia
Loosely speaking, the opposite of the symptoms experienced by those who have Broca's Aphasia. Comprehension is impaired, as are repetition, naming, reading, and writing, but the syntactic aspects of speech are preserved. In this, lots of inintelligible words are produced. Wernicke identified this disorder and the left-hemisphere region that is damaged. Thus it is known as Wernicke's Area. This area is located very close to the auditory cortex, likely explaining the effects on the ability to comprehend language.
Conduction Aphasia
Much more rare aphasia than the other two. Symptoms are that a patient is unable to repeat what they have just heard. The site of the brain lesion in conduction aphasia appears to be the primary pathway between Broca's and Wernicke's areas, called the arcuate fasciulus. Quite literally, the pathway between the comprehension and production areas is no longer able to conduct the linguistic message.
The disruption of word finding, an impairment in the normal ability to retrieve a semantic concept and say its name. In anomia, some aspect of the normally automatic semantic or lexical components of retreval has been damaged. Although moderate word-finding difficulty can result from damage almost anywhere in the left hemisphere, full-fledged anomia seems to involve damage especially in the left temporal lobe.
A shared symbolic system for communication. There are about 5,000 to 6,000 languages and dialects in the world today.
A variation of a language used in a particular geographic area. There is little in the way of concrete qualifications that distinctly seperates the two from one another. Technically a seperate form of verbal communication than a dialect of the same language. However, dialects are clearly placing much of their emphasis upon the spoken language
A variety of a language that is unique to an individual. Each person's own communication is unique in how they choose their words, syntax, etc.
World Language Facts
There are around 5,000-6,000 languages and dialects in the world, about 845 of these are located within India. There are 46 different phonomes that are able to be made by the human speaker
Millers 4th and 5th
Conceptual and belief levels. The purely linguistic analysis of language misses this occasionally critical aspect of langauge comprehension.
Sachs (1967)
A classic example of early comprehension research, with a straightforward conclusion. As subjects were reading a passage, they were interrupted and tested on a targed sentence, either 0, 80, or 160 syllabules after the end of the target. Their recognition of the targetsentance was very accurate at the intermediate level. But beyond that, they only at rejecting the chioice that changed the meaning of the sentance. Subjects could not accurately discriminate between the true target sentance and the two choices that were paraphrases. Shows that memory of meaningful passages does not retain verbatim sentences for very long, but does retain meaning quite well.
Jarvella (1971)
Had subjects listen to lengthy passeages, but interrupted them at various unpredictable times. When they were interrupted, they were supposed to write down whatever they cuold remember from the end of the passage immediately before the interuption. Jarvella was testing the hypothesis that people hold information about a sentance in memory until that sentence or meaningful clause is completed; once the sentence is completed, however, they file away the overall meaning and turn their attention to the next. Hypothesis supported, Once a sentance has ended, it seems to be purged from working memory as a verbatim or active memory and therefore no longer accessable for word-by-word recall.
When we read sentences that describe characters, objects, and events with the article "the" the sentences seem more choerent and sensible than sentences using a, an , and some. Furthermore, such sentences are understood better and are remebered better later on. His view is that the is a cue for discourse coherence, enabling us to perform the mapping process more effciently and accuratly. Testing completely supported, but also showed that subjects when hooked up to mri machines showed a greater level of activation in the brain, especially the right hemisphere regions. This further supports the belief that the right hemisphere is greater responsible for activity for the coherence and inferences processes in langauge comprehension.
Cooperative Principle
The idea that each participant in a conversation implicitly assumes that all speakers are following the rules and that each cnotribution to the conversation is a sincere appropriate contribution
Cooperative Principle Guidlines
1)Relevance-Make sure your utterances relevant to the conversation
2)Quantity-Be as informative as required
3)Quality-Say what is true
4)Manner and tone-Be clear, avoid obscurity and ambiguity, be breif, be polite, don't interrupt.
Cooperative Principle Guidlines Two Extra Rules
Relations with converstional partner- Infer and respond to partner's knowledge and beliefs
Rule violantions- Signal or makr intentional violations of rules, stress emphasis in tone, make obvious violations.
Topic Maintenance
Maknig our contributions to a conversation relevant and to the topic and sticking to the topic.
Direct Theory
Theory or mental model of what the conversational partner knows and is interested in, what the partner is like.
Second-order Theory
An evaluation of the other participant's direct theory: what you think the other participant believes about you.
When subjects heard positive information, it took them a long time to comprehend either the excuse, or topic change responses. But having heard negative informatino, the talk was terrible, was nearly the same as having heard nothing about the talk. subjects comprehended the excuse or topic change responses much more rapidly, and there was no major difference between no informatin and negative information. This is because of face-saving, and goes along with the politeness ethic.