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29 Cards in this Set

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Group of units of information (usually letters or numbers) when taken together, they mean something collectively. i.e. 1776 is associated with the dec of independence, whereas the numbers 1+7+7+6 likely mean nothing. By chunking, you pack more elements into a bit of information because 1+7+7+6 is considered 4 bits of information, while 1776 is considered 1. Chunking can increase the number of letters of digits recalled, but not short-term memory capacity.
Long Term Memory System
Contains two systems:

1. Declarative/Explicit Memory which contains two branches, Semantics and Episodic.

2. Nondeclarative/Implicit Memory which includes four branches; Procedural Skills, Priming, Conditioning, and Nonassociative.
Declarative/Explicit Memory
Part of the Long term memory. Contains the information that can be recalled consciously by the mind on demand. Two types:

1. Episodic Memory-Events you have directly experienced.

2. Semantic Memory- Factual information-mostly general knowledge but also includes other types of information.
Implicit/Nondeclarative Memory
Part of the Long term memory. Contains information which cannot be recalled consciously, but manifests itself in performance. Four types:
1.Priming- A previous experience influences some subsequent response.
2.Procedural Skills-Motor, perceptual, and cognative.
3. Conditioning
4. Nonassociative-habitualization, sensation.
Bargh Experiment
Experiment that tests the effects of priming. Two groups memorize bunch of words together, then each individual recalled words by writing them down. Group 1 given rude words to memorize while Group 2 was given polite words. Bargh had each individual in situation in which they would have to interrupt him in a deep conversation, Group 2 much mroe polite from priming.
Baddely Model (Working Memory)
Three components:
1. Central Executive
2. Two Slave systems which are single part of the three each and are: Phonological Loop & Visiospatial Sketch Pad
Central Executive
First of three parts of Baddelys Model of Working Memory. It is the part that does most of the work. The decision-making component of the working memory, also higher level functions. CE is the component of the WM that is in contact with the long-term memory. Associated with reasoning and language comprehension, and activity in the prefrontal cortex. Alzeimers Disease and ites cognative problems are specifically linked to the breakdown in the Central Executive. (Prefrontal lobe shrinks).
Two Slave Systems
The collective of the two other working parts of the total three of the Baddely Model for Working Memory. Called slave systems because they are controlled by the CE. CE decides when to use them, have no control on their own; they simply maintain information in an active state (or the present). Each slave system can operate independently of the other.
Phonological Loop
One of the two slave systems which make up the three parts of Baddely Model for Working Memory. Keeps speech-based (verbal) information in the present. Associated with Brocas area in the left-hemisphere, which is also associated with language. Can be observed through the performance of the 1 syllabul word recall test.
Word Length Effect
When being tested on performance for recalling serious of words, the phenomenon that the more syllabuls per word there are, the less total words will be remebered; this is one peice of evidence that we use the Phonological Loop in verbal learning and verbal memory.
Positive Reinforcement
Adding a desired stimulus
Negative Reinforcement
Subtracting an aversive stimulus
Positive Punishment
Adding an aversive stimulus
Negative Punishment
Subtracting a desired stimulus.
Learning is the capacity for behavior due to experience. Learning is inferred through performance. Learning that certain events occur together.
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which the organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus(NS) that signals an unconditioned Stimulus(US) elicits a learned response or conditioned response. (CR)

Example: In the end, the metronome that plays for the dogs is the Neutral stimulus(NS)---food then being presented to coincide is the Unconditioned Stimulus(US)---The salvation that occurs upon the sound of the metronom regardless of food being placed is the Conditioned Responce(CR) to the sound.
Classical Conditioning Pavlov Experiment
Food being served is a unconditioned Stimulus, and the salvation that follows is an unconditioned response.
Metronom and food being placed at same time, and salvation still occuring because of food still, Metronom(NS)--Food(US)---Food (UR)
Metronome sound that results in salvation without food being placed out, Metronome(CS) Salivation(CR)
Cognitive Processes and Classical Conditioning
Expectancy-an awareness of how likely it is that an unconditioned stimulus will occur. Conditioning is not mindless and mechanic in nature, and classical conditioning treatments that ignore cognition often have limited success. In classical conditioning, especially with humans, it isnt only the simple stimulus-response association, but also the thought that counts.
Conclusions Regarding Classical Conditioning
It has been observed in every species tested. Itis an important way by which virtually all organisms learn to adapt to their environment. Pavlov demonstrated that objective laboratory procedures can be used to study complex behaviors by isolating their elementary building blocks.
Anything that strengthens the probability of a response. Most scientists now favor an emphasis on reinforcement rather than on punishment.
Suppresses unwanted behavior but does not guide the organism towards desirable behavior. (Avoidance). Punishment combined with reinforcement is usually much more effective than punishment alone.
Continuous v. Partial (intermittent) Reinforcement
Continuous reinforcement reinforces everytime, loses value after a while; while partial reinforcement does not reinforce every time, works very well. Continuous reinforcement is best until a behavior is mastered, after which, intermittent reinforcement makes the behavior more resistant to extinction.
Schedules of Reinforcement: (Different Types of Intermitten Reinforcement)
Ratio Schedule-Provides a higher response rate than interval schedules do.
Fixed Ratio Schedules-reinforce behavior after a set number of responses.
Variable Ratio Schedules-provides reinforcers after an unpredictable number of responses (like a slot machine) Variable Ratio schedules which is the most difficult type of reinforcement for behavior to extinguish.
Fixed Interval Schedules-Reinforce the first response after a fixed time period (like checking mailbox at a time mail is expected to arrive).
Conclusions on rewards-reinforcements
Excessive rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation-the desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. A persons interests often survives when a reward is used neither to bribe nor to control but rather to signal a job well done.
Skinners Contribution (Robbie)
Third grader who was hard to deal with,
1.Baseline--only spent 25% of his class time on learning.
2.Reinforcement(phase 1) praised Robbie after doing anything good, with extrensic reinforcement they got immediate improvement.
3.Rehersal--Withdrew reinforcer, behavior went down slightly, but still higher than at baseline.
4.Reinforcement (Phase 2)--Reintroduced reinforcement, behavior went back up.
5.Post-Check---Three and a half months later, behavior was still high.
Skinner Reinforcement at the Workplace
Reinforcement for a job well done is especially effective if the desired performance is well defined and achievable. reward specific behaviors and not vaguely defined worth. Reinforcement should be immediate-or as soon as possible.
Skinner Reinforcement at Home
Well define behavior, especially ignore whinning. When children misbehave, do not yell at them, but explain the misbehavior and then give them a time out
is a decrease in the strength of a relexive response when a stimulus is repeated at regular intervals. Is seen as early as seven hours old, change object to look at, and infants gazing time will go back up. Not due to fatigue!!
The opposite of habituation. When there is an increase in the strength of a reflexive response when a stimulus is repeated at regular intervals.