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118 Cards in this Set

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What is associative learning?
When you link 2 events together.
What is classical learning/conditioning?
Learn to associate 2 events.
What is operant learning/conditioning?
Learn to associate response and its consequences
What is an unconditioned stimulus?
A natural (unlearned) stimilus.
What is an unconditioned response?
An unlearned response to an unconditioned stimulus.
What is a conditioned stimulus?
A learned stimulus; previously neutral.
What is a conditioned response?
A learned response to a conditional stimulus.
What is the lavendar example of classical conditioning?
Lavendar makes people relax. Driving leads to road rage. Put lavendar in the car so people will relax and won't have road rage. Lavendar (UCS)-->Relaxes (UCR), Driving (CS)-->Relaxed, less road rage (CR)
What is acquisition?
The initial state of learning; learning association.
What is extinction?
Losing the CR (conditioned response)
What is spontaneous recovery?
CR (conditioned response) comes back in weak form (exposure to CS after not being exposed for a while)
What is generalization?
Respond to stimuli similar to CS (conditioned stimulus)
What is disctimination?
Respond differently to CS and other neutral, but similar stimuli
What is shaping? Give an example.
Rewarding successive approximations. Example: teach a dog a new trick
What is positive reinforcement? Example.
Present a reward after a response. Example: if you clean your room, you can have dessert
What is negative reinforcement? Example.
Reduce/remove adverse stimulus (NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT DOESN'T MEAN PUNISHMENT) Example: if you take aspirin, you won't have a headache
What is punishment? Example.
Adverse consequence that decreases frequency of behavior. Example: a teen getting grounded for missing curfew
What's the difference between punishment and reinforcement? Examples.
Punishment takes away something the person likes (EX: a teen getting grounded for missing curfew). Reinforcement increases behavior by rewarding th person (EX: give a child stickers each time they read a book)
What is continuous reinforcement?
Reinforce desired response every time.
What is partial reinforcement?
Reinforce desired behavior only sometimes.
(Referring to partial reinforcement schedules) What is fixed ratio?
Reinforce after certain number of responses. EXAMPLE: 20,000 points for a free flight
(Referring to partial reinforcement schedules) What is variable ratio?
Reinforce after unpredictable number of responses. EXAMPLE: slot machines
(Referring to partial reinforcement schedules) What is fixed-interval ratio?
Reinforce after fixed period of time. EXAMPLE: need to work 40 hrs. to get a paycheck
(Referring to partial reinforcement schedules) What is variable-interval ratio?
Reinforce after unpredictable amount of time. EXAMPLE: waiting for a package or an email
What is a primary reinforcer?
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need. EXAMPLE: food, water, sleep, sex
What is a secondary reinforcer?
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer. EXAMPLE: money, stickers, tokens (to trade for a prize)
What is an immediate reinforcer?
Reward immediately to continue the behavior. EXAMPLE: reward a rat immediately after it presses the bar
What is a delayed reinforcer?
Waiting to recieve the reward. EXAMPLE: waiting to recieve the paycheck at the end of the week
What is latent learning?
Learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. People can learn without reinforcement.
What are biological predispositions?
Some people/animals you just can't train because it goes against theoir biology. (A pigeon would be more willing to peck for food vs. flapping its wings for food because pecking is more natural in getting food)
What is the overjustification effect?
The effect whereby giving someone an incentive (money or otherwise) to do something they already enjoy doing decreases their intristic motivitation to do it. EXAMPLE: if kids like read, but then get paid, they will no longer enjoy reading because it'll be more about work and less about fun
What is encoding?
Getting info in (brain encodes sensory info into a neutral language)
What is storage?
Storing info (brain stores vast amounts of info which can be retrieved later)
What is retrieval?
Getting info back out (memory can be modified)
What is semantic encoding?
Encoding of meaning
What is acoustic encoding?
Encoding of sounds (enhanses memorability and seeming truth of rhyming apoorisms)
What is visual encoding?
Encoding of visuals (we remember concrete words that lend themselves mental images better than we can remember abstract words)
What are some reasons we fail to encode info?
Next in line effect and encoding at night before we sleep
What is the next in line effect?
Blank on info right before you need it
What does encoding at night before you sleep do to your memories?
You won't remember info presented in the seconds just before sleep
What are some encoding aids?
Rehersal, organization, elaboration, external aids, chunking, hierarchies
What is rehersal?
Extended repetition.
What is organization?
Group items into categories (acronyms, chunking numbers into groups)
What is elaboration?
Move beyond given info (pics, songs, ABC schoolhouse rock)
What are external aids?
Calendars, cell phones, computer, notebook
What is chunking?
Grouping info into meaningful units or words
What are hierarchies?
Organize info into rankings (outlines)
What is iconic memory?
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic memory lasting no more than 1/10 second
What is echoic memory?
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimului; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3-4 seconds
WHat is short term memory (STM)?
Limited capacity and duration
How long to STMs last?
30 seconds
How much info to STMs hold?
7 or so bits of info
What is long term memory (LTM)?
Limitless capacity
How long to LTMs last?
As little as 30 seconds, as long as decades
How much info to LTMs hold?
Limitless (one billion-ish bits of info usually)
What is the forgetting curve?
Illustrates the decline of memory retention in time.
What is long-term potentiation?
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neutral basis for learning and memory.
Why isn't memory retrieval like replaying a video?
Because you can only recall bits and pieces of info, not the entire thing.
What are some examples of retrieval clues?
Context, state-dependent learning, priming, recall, recognition, relearning, and proactive interference
(Referring to retrieval clues) What is context?
Go back to environment where it happened and you'll remember.
(Referring to retrieval clues) What is state-dependent learning?
Remember better in a given state of mind
(Referring to retrieval clues) What is priming?
Identify strand that leads to memory (giving clues)
(Referring to retrieval clues) What is recall?
The ability to retrieve info not in concious awareness
(Referring to retrieval clues) What is recognition?
Person identifies info previously learned
(Referring to retrieval clues) What is relearning?
If you once learned something, and forgot it, you can relearn it more quickly that you originally learned it.
(Referring to retrieval clues) What is proactive interference?
What you study early blurs with what you study later (forward acting)
(Referring to retrieval clues) What is retroactive interference?
What you study later interferes with what you studies earlier (backward acting)
(Referring to retrieval clues) What are mneumonic devices?
Memory aids; strategies for remembering
What is an example of rehersal?
Repeat items over and over.
What is an example of chunking?
See a long word:
ISAWTHECATJUMP = I saw the cat jump
What is an example of organization?
daisy, frog, cat, tulip = flowers: daisy and tulip & animals: frog and cat
What is an example of keyword method?
The Spanish word "carta" means letter. Sounds like a cart, imagine a letter in a cart.
What is an example of pegword method?
One is a bun, two is a shoe
What is an example of method of loci?
Imagine moving through a familiar series of locations, associating each place with a visual representation of the to-be-remembered topic. A loaf of bread sticking out of a mailbox.
What is implicit memory?
Learn/remember HOW to do something (cerebellum involvement, motor skills)
What is explicit memory?
Learn/remember WHAT (new memories laid down via hippocampus)
How does Clive Wearing demonstrate implitit and explicit memory?
He demonstrates implicit memory by remember how to play piano and he demonstrates explicit memories by remembering his wife and events that occured before he got amnesia
What are false memories?
A memory of an event that didn't happen or a distortion of an event that did occur.
What is source amnesia?
An explicit memory disorder in which someone can recall certain information, but not know where or how it was obtained.
What are misinformation effects?
A memory bias that occurs when misinformation affects people's reports of their own memory
What are the building blocks to cognition?
Concepts (mental groups of similar things) and solving problems (cope w/ novel situations)
What is a concept?
Mental groups of similar things (light, flower, bird, neighbor)
What is a prototype?
The best example of a category (category is fruit: apple)
(In reference to the key example) what are algorithms?
Try every single key on the chain
(In reference to the key example) what are heuristics?
If you're going to open a door, you know you don't need the Honda key
(In reference to the key example) what is insight?
Understanding a joke later in the day; A-Ha!
What is fixation?
Inability to see a problem from a new perspective (being stubborn)
What is functional fixation?
Inability to see new use for object
What is confirmation bias?
Search for new info that confirms our ideas
How does confirmation bias hinder thinking?
We seek evidence verifying our ideas more eagerly that we seek evidence that might refute them EXAMPLE: Watson gave students a 3-number sequence and asked them to guess the rule he used, he let students ask if their numbers conformed to his tule. They were seldom right but never in doubt.
What is overconfidence?
Overestimate accuracy of our knowledge
How does overcondifence hinder thinking?
Our eagerness to confirm the beliefs we already hold makes us overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgement. Failing to appreciate one's potential for error can lead to devastating consequences. EXAMPLE: students underestimating the amout of time they need to study for a test and then failing the test
How does framing affect our decision making?
Those who understand the power of framing can use it to influence important decisions.
Give examples of framing.
95% lean sounds better than 5% fat. A $100 coat that is marked down from $150 seems more appealing than the same coat marked at $100, but not on sale.
What are the availability heuristics? Example
Base judgments on availability of info in memory. EXAMPLE: people hear of plane crashes so decide to drive, even though they're more likely to get in a car wreck than a plane crash
What are the representaativeness heuristics? Example
Judge liklihood of things being in a certain category. EXAMPLE: assuming all tall people play basketball
What are phonemes?
Set of vowel & consonant sounds EXAMPLE: the vowel differences between b and t create 12 different meanings. ALL LETTERS
What are morphemes?
The smallest meaningful unit of language. Most morphemes are combinations of 2+ phonemes. Also included are prefixes or suffixes. EXAMPLE: the person pronoun "I" is the smallest, the suffix -ed
What is syntax?
Rules about ORDER of words in a sentence (refers to parts of speech)
What are semantics?
Rules used to derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences (refers to context)
What are behavorists and who is one?
Believe in nurture/experience. Skinner things that babies learn language through imitation, association, and reinforcement
What are nativists and who is one?
Believe in nature/inborn. Chomsky thinks the ability to learn language is inborn.
What was Galton's view of intelligence?
Eugenetics movement, quantitatively measure intelligence (time, language, math concepts, memory)
Why was the Stanford-Binet designed?
To predict school achievement. Mental age corresponds to level of performance.
What does IQ stand for?
Intelligence quotient
What components does the WISC (Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children) have?
Verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed, full scale IQ
What is savant syndrome?
Island of brilliance with low overall intelligence. 10% of autistic population, 1% of general population. (Think Rainman, amazing with numbers)
Savants: creative or practical or academic. Define.
Creativity: nobvel problem solver, divergent thinker
Practical: street smart, common sense
Academic: book smart, does well on school tests
What is Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of intelligence? What are the 3 components, give examples.
1.) Academic--scoring high on a test
2.) Practical--being a manager
3.) Creative--solving a rubix cube
What are Gardener's Multiple Intelligences (8)
1.) Linguistic
2.) Logical-mathematical
3.) Musical
4.) Spacial
5.) Bodily-kinesthetic
6.) Intrapersonal (self)
7.) Interpersonal (other ppl)
8.) Naturalist
What is emotional intelligence?
Ability to percieve, express, understand, and regulate emotions
What are aptitude tests?
Predict ability to learn new skill
What are achievement tests?
Show what you've learned during class
What is validity?
Test actually measures what it's supposed to (accurate measurement)
What is reliability?
Test yields consistent scores.
Test-retest: year 1 vs. year 2
Split-half: split in 1/2 and check off/even for accuracy
What is standardization?
Meaning comparison to a pretested group (compares to other age groups)
Heritability of Intelligence: what evidence exists for it?
Variation in intelligence due to genetic influences. NOT an individual statistic. Differences among people WITHIN a group. NOT differences BETWEEN groups.
Are intelligence tests biased?
YES--> expose differences in cultural experience
NO--> predicts just as well in one group than another