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35 Cards in this Set

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Quantitative Change
Change in number or amount, such as growth in height, weight, or vocab.
Qualitative Change
Change in kind, structure or organisation.
Socio-economic status
Combination of economic and social factors describing an individual or family, including income, education and occupation.
Risk factors
Conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative developmental outcome
Culture
A society's or groups total way of life, including customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language and physical products - all learned behaviour passed on from parents to children.
Ethnic Group
Group united by ancestry, race, religion, language, and/or national origins, which contribute to a sense of shared identity.
Normative
Characteristic of an event that occurs in a similar way for most people in a group.
Cohort
Group of people growing up at about the same time.
Non-normative
Characteristic of an unusual event that happens to a particular person, or a typical event that happens at an unusual time of life.
Imprinting
Instinctive form of learning in which, during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees - usually its mother.
Critical Period
Specific time when a given event, or its absence, has a specific impact on development.
Sensitive Periods
Times in development when a person is particularly responsive to certain kinds of experiences.
Theory
Coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to organize, explain and predict data.
Hypothesis
Possible explanations for phenomena, used to predict the outcome of research.
Mechanistic Model
Model that views development as a passive, predictable response to stimuli.
Organismic Model
Model that views development as internally initiated by an active organism, and as occuring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages.
Psychoanalytic Perspective
View of development as shaped by unconscious forces.
Psychosexual development
In Freudian theory, an unvarying sequence of stages of personality develoment during infacy, childhood, and adolescence, in which gratification shifts from the mouth, then the anus, then to the genitals.
Psychosocial development
In Eriksons eight-stage theory, the socially and culturally influenced process of development of the ego, or self.
Learning Perspective
View of development that holds that changes in behaviour result from experience, or adaption to the environment.
Behaviourism
Learning theory that emphasizes the predictable role of environment in causing observable behaviour.
Classical Conditioning
Learning based on association of a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a response with another stimulus that does not elicit the response.
Operant Conditioning
Learning based on reinforcement or punishment.
Reinforcement
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that encourages repetition of a desired behaviour.
Punishment
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that discourages repetition of a behaviour.
Social Learning theory
Theory that behaviours are learned by observing and imitating models. Also called Social Cognitive Theory.
Observational Learning
Learning through watching the behaviour of others.
Cognitive Perspective
View that thought processes are central to development.
Organisation
Piaget's term for integration of knowledge into systems.
Schemes
Piaget's term for organized patterns of behaviour used in different situations
Adaptation
Piaget's term for adjustment to new information about the environment.
Assimilation
Piaget's term for incorporation of new infromation into an existing cognitive structure.
Accommodation
Piaget's term for changes in a cognitive structure to include new information.
Equilibration
Piaget's term for the tendency to seek a stable balance among cognitive elements.
Information-processing approach
Approach to the study of cognitive development by observing and analyzing the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information.