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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
* Outermost, clear, even shpaed.
* Astigmatisim- waves and bumps in the cornea mixes up light and waves making vision blurry.
* A dent in the retina, most of your cones are here
Rods and cones?
* Key role in color vision Blue, green, and red (cones)
*Very sensitive to light, but only see in shades of gray (Rods)
* Release chemical all the time unless they get a light signal to the ganglion cell
*ganglion cell goes to the brain
*series of action potientail in the occipital lobe
Iris? Pupil?
*Colored part of eye
* Regulates the amount of light that enters the eye
* Pupil hole in the iris
Taste Adversion?
* Pairs a taste with an illness
* Animal Avoids taste
* Classical condtioning
* Found biological boundary
* Chemotherapy
* Make you eat food, get sick
Pathway from eye to brain?
* Into the eye
* Passes the retina on the back of the eye
* Bipolar and ganglion cells
*optic nerve
* optic chiasm
* Lateral geniculate bodes
* Occipital lobe of the cortex
Oponent systems?
* Pairs of cells
* One or the other can fire, not both
*red or green
* blue or yellow
* Yellow is added by the brain
* Opponent cells of lines and edges and other figures
Monocular cues?
* One eyed cues
* Basic monocular cues-
picture/pictoral, kinetic/motion, eye adjustment/accomodation
Binocular cues? (2 kinds)
* 2 Eyed cues
* Convergance- movement of the eyes inward/putward
* Feedback to the brain that u r looking at far/near objects
* Binocular dispairity- each eye sees a slightly different image, overlap between the two images
* more overlap near
* less overlap- far
* When you stare
-black/white (Rods)
Linear perspective?
* lines converge as the object get further away
* Patterns get smaller and more dense as the object gets farther away
* Small shaped organ
* Contains semi-circular canals (fluid filled)
-Vestibular, basilar, and tectal membranes
Tympanic Membrane?
* Eardrum- piece of skin cross the oval window
Gestalt psychologists?
*Kohler Wertheimer
* 20th century German Psychologists
* phenomenologists- studeies phenomenon
* why people have both unique perceptual expirences and commonality across expirences
* Brain is hardwired to percieve senstations in certain ways-must have expirences to learn to use it
Figure vs. Ground?
* gestalt- whole configuration
* gestalt can be broken down into the background (ignore it, irrelevant to stimuli) and the figure (attend to, relevant stimuli)
Trichromatic Theory?
* Three color theory
* Young (1880)
* Von Hemmoltz (1950)
* Three colors make white light-blue, green, and red
* Should have 3 dif. kinds of cones, blue, green, and red (mix together to form other colors)
Opponent process of color theory?
* Two levels of processing
* At eye level- 3 kinds of rods/cones
* Brain level- opponent systems of cells
Interposition of occultion or of objects as monocilar cues?
* Near object occludes or blocks a farther away object
* Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that is not due to physical changes in enviromental or maturation
* effortful
* Learning to ignore or to not respong to something
* Learn to ignore irrelevant stimuli
* Pay attention to important stimuli
Classical Conditioning?
* Respond to predictive stimuli because they cue you about an upcomming change
Unconditioned stimulus?
* US
* loud noise (albert)
Unconditioned Response?
* UR
Conditioned Stimulus?
* CS
* Predictor, carries info about an upcomming event
Conditioned response?
* CR
* Response to the predictor
* CS must predict the CR
Ivan Pavlov?
* Reflex arc (Descartes)
* Knew that a cue could predict a stimulus that would set off a reflex
* Russian psychologist studying salvation and digestion
Pavlov and his dogs?
* Rings abell, te dog learns to slobber to the bell
* Didn't have to teach the dog to slobber for food (innate, not conditioned)
* Slobbering to food is conditioned (learning)
Law of Effect?
* Ewards Thorndike (1911)
* cats in a puzzle box
* measure how long is takes the cat to get out of the box
* when a response is followed by a satisfying state of affairs that response will increase.
Extinction in Classical conditioning?
* If the CS stops being predictive, you stop showing CR
Extinction in operate conditioning?
* Stop the consequence: R--> Sr to R--> 0
* Extinction burst or spontaneous increase in responding
* extinction induced agression
Partial schedules of reinforcement?
* 4 kinds- Fixed ratio, Fixed interval, Variable ratio, and variable interval
Schedules of reinforcment?
* Instructions for when you get a reward
* Two basic kinds- Continuous and Partial
Continuous schedules of reinforcement?
* Every response is rewarded.
Variable interval schedule?
* On average, the first response after X amount of time is rewarded
* pop quiz
Fixed interval schedule?
* FI
* The first response after X amount of time is rewarded
* FI 60 sec
Variable ratio schedule?
* VR
* On average, the nth response is rewarded
* its an average across some time interval
* on average of 5 responses
* slot machines
Fixed ratio scedules?
*Every nTH response is reinforced
*FR5: Every 5th response is rewarded
* respond and wait: break and run
Learned helplessness?
* * Martin Seligman
* Rule governed by behavior- behavior uses gen. rules
* Aniamls can learn to become helpless- learn they have no control over the outcome of a situation
* Model of depression- math: attribute the failure to yourself rather than the situation
* internal cause: i'm not bad
* No internal cause: bad teachers
* Reteach and relearn that you can make changes in the enviroment (positive instances make you successful)
Bandura's Study withthe bobo doll?
* Preschool children are seperated into 2 groups (Disney nature flick vs video of grad student beating Bobo saying unique phrases)
* Kids individually go play with BoBo
* Bobo watchers were more aggressive than nature kids
TV and violence: Real characters VS Animated characters?
* Evening news produced most violent behavior in kids
* Why? The news is real! (Power ranger were REAL people)
* Imitated thing- parents, teachers, friends, sex on TV, emergency behaviors
* group items that fit together
* group numbers into meaningful units.
* Must keep rehersing or it goes away
* disrupted- lose the memory
* unique ways to rehearse it
(maitenance:rote rehearsal Elaborative: elaborate or make the info meaningful
mnemonic devices: memory cues.
Short term memory?
* duration of about 20 sec.
* capacity of 7 +/- 2 items (5-9 thing)
Form rules for solving problems. Algorithm and heuristics?
* Algorithm: rules that always works
* heuristics: rules that usually works
Schemas that influence our memories and our behavior?
* Pollyanna bias
* Eoyore
* Rose colored glasses
* Self- enhancing bias
* Smallest unti of meaning
* Root word:cat
* prefixes and suffixes
* smallest unit of sound /b/ /p/
* English has about 45 phenomes
* Changes in word meaning, word emphasis
Syntax in language?
* Grammar
Semanic memory?
* verbal memory
* words and phrases
* vocab
Episodic memory?
* For episodes
* Pictures, events, places
* pictoral memory
Procedural memory?
* Action
* memory for a motor movement
* computer strokes
Eidectic memory?
* Flashbulb memory
* photographic memory
* snapshots of events surrounding an important event
* Tend to be inaccurate
* young kids use this a lot
Sensory register memory?
* Sensation- paying att. to imp. info
* very brief: less than a sec
* only holds about 4 bits of info
* noncatagorical: you don't attend to what is in it, just that it is there
Functional Fixedness?
* Can't use an object for an unintended purpose
* Use it for the designed purpose; not for the current need.
* Shape and color, depth,
* Binocular
* Convergance of the eyes (movement of eyes in or outward)
Eyewitness Testimony and False Memories?
* Eyewitness testimony is bias, based on constructive memory.
*False memories are implanted. Someone tells you something that happened to you and you believe it.
* More suseptable in children
Other factors= rose colored glasses, self enhancing bias, eoyore, or pollyana.
Analogy and Problem Solving?
*Define a prob:set of rules, meaterials, and a goal or outcome.
* 2 Rules for problm solving- algorithm, and heuristics
*Analogy use one problem as a prototype to solve another
Motion Cues?
* To move there must be depth
* Motion parallax: movement of light gives the illusion of movement of the object (neon signs)
Positive Reinforcement?
* Add a stimulus to increase a response
* Add a stimulus to decrease a response
* Add something
Negative Reinforcement?
* Take away a stimulus to increase a response
* Take away a stimulus to decrease a response
* Take away something
Aha or instight learning?
* gestalt
* Stages: suspense, confused, walk away from problem(consolodation), insight or aha.
Observational Learning?
* Learning from others not through reinforcement
Contingency and operate conditioning?
* Behavior change change 2 ways, increase (reinforcer, or decrease (punisher0
* behavior or response in contigient upon some outcome or response