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61 Cards in this Set

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Definition of Intelligence?
1)A person has a range of different abilities. 2) Intelligence can be equated with how a person measuures up on a particular ability scale, as valued by a culture.
Sir Francis Galton
First to study intelligence, 1800's, believed intelligence dependent on quick neural responses and sensitivity (acuity) our sensory/perceptual processes.
Alfred Binet
Developed first I.Q. test for use in identifying French schoolchildren with special needs. Tested abilities such as verbal, mathematical, and analytical. Named Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale. Revised in U.S. as Stanford-Binet scale.
Definition of fluid intelligence
The ability to understand relationships between items in the absence of overt experience or practice with the items in question.
Definition of Crystallized Intelligence
Knowledge that is acquired through experience, on the assumption that people who learn from their experiences are showing a mental capacity that is absent in those who fail to learn from experience.
Cattell's Model of Intelligence
Intelligence can be divided into two factors. Fluid and Crystallized intelligence.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)
Theory that attempts to provide practical definitions of intelligence, including musical, verbal, mathematical/logical, spatial, kinesthetic (body control), intrapersonal (self-understanding), and interpersonal (social understanding)
Spearman's "g"
General intelligence, puzzling finding that individuals tend to perform at consistent levels across a variety of different cognitive tasks.
Dualism
Descartes, Mind and Conciousness separate, and conciousness cannot be physically studied.
Qualia
The properties of our subjective, phenomenological awareness. E.G. does everyone percieve the color red in the same manner?
Materialism
Theory that conciousness directly enables the mind and by studying brain you can study conciousness. Neural firings etc.
Subliminal Perception
Stimuli that are processed by sensory systems but because of their short duration or subtle form, do not reach the threshold of entering into conciousness.
Awareness
The notion that to be cognizant of information is to be able to report that the information is being, or has been, percieved.
Blindsight
A condition in which people who are blind have some spared visual capacities in the absence of any visual awareness.
Phonology
The study of the set of meaningless sounds and rules by which we combine them to make words and sentences.
morphology
The system of rules for combining the smallest meaningful units
of lang into words
Morpheme
The smalles unit of speech that has meaning. E.G. "S" when used to make a plural word or represent possession. Mary's. Not "S" in a larger word such as Star.
Syntax
The system of rules by which words are combined into phrases and phrases into sentences.
English is an "Analytic" lang. using word order to indicate meaning. VS. "Synthetic" syntax lang. (Spanish) which indicates meaning by morphing subjects and objects.
Semantics
The study of the system of meanings that underlie words, phrases, etc.
Discourse
The systematic ways by which people engage in conversations.
Pragmatics
The way people use lang. to get what they want and to influence their listeners.
Telegraphic speech
Baby development speech. One, two word phrases. As is sending a telegraph.
The tendency of children to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical markings but follow a logical syntax.
Language Aquisition Device
Babies with LAD have the means to 1)narrow the range possible grammars consistent with a partial (and often defective) set of sentences that is typical of spontaneous conversations ("primary ling. data) 2) Deduce a grammar for lang. exposed to ("parameter setting"
Joint attentional engagement
A process whereby caregivers make reference to objects that are part of a child's ongoing actions.
Stress
A pattern of behavioral and physiological responses to cope with events that match or exceed an organism's abilities.
Display Rules
Cultural rules that govern how and when emotions are exhibited.
Guilt
A negative emotional state associated with an internal experience of anxiety, tension, and agitation.
strengthens bonds in three ways. 1) Prevents people from doing things that harm their relationship. 2)Makes people do things that strengthen their relationship. 3) Guilt is an influence tactic used to manipulate behavior in others.
Alexithymia
A disorder that leads to a lack of the subjective experience of emotion. Physical prevention of emotional signals to compute in brain.
Primary emotions
Evolutionarily adaptive emotions that are shared across cultures and associated with specific biological and physical states.
Secondary emotions
Blends of primary emotions, including states such as remorse, guilt, submission and anticipation.
Circumplex Model
An approach to understanding emotion, in which basic factors of emotion are spatially arranged in a circle, formed around the intersections of the core dimensions of affect.
James-Lange Theory of emotion
Theory that suggests the experience of emotion is elicited by a physiological response to a particular stimuli or situation.
Facial Feedback hypothesis
The idea that facial expressions trigger the experience of emotion
Cannon-Bard theory
A theory of emotion that asserts that emotion-producing stimuli from the environment elicit both an emotional and physical reaction.
Two factor theory of emotion
Proposes that a situation evokes both a physiological response, such as arousal, and a cognitive interpretation.
Excitation Transfer
A form of misattribution where residual physiological arousal caused by one event is transferred to a new stimulus.
Cognitive framing
The way people think about events can contribute to the intensity of emotional responses and shape the labels they place on emotions. E.G. Blown off roof analogy.
Situation Selection
method of regulating moods based on choosing to put yourself in a situation you anticipate to create certain feelings or decide against it.
Situation modification
Taking action to alter a situation that produces an unwanted affect. E.G. load party next to yours at dinner and asking to be moved.
Attentional Deployment
Taking your mind off of something by distracting it with something else.
Cognitive change
Recasting an unpleasant situation in an alternative way...E.G. humor
Response modulation
Attempting to control affects when you feel loss of control over the situation.
Rumination
Thinking about, elaborating, and focusing on undesired thoughts of feelings, which prolongs, rather than alleviates, a negative mood.
Amygdala
Brain structure most important for emotional learning, such as conditioned fear responses. E.G. Kluver-Bucy syndrome. Sensory info reaches amygdala along two pathways. A quick dirty one and a slower more deliberate one. We currently believe the fast one prepares the animal for response if the second pathway confirms it.
Orbitofrontal cortex
Brain structure involved in assessing reward factors. Also involved in processing emotional cues. Esp. in interpersonal relationships.
Cerebral Asymmetry
An emotional pattern associated with unequal activation of the left and right frontal lobes. Left hem. dominance associated with positive thinking. Right hem. associated with negative thinking and lack of motivation.
Fight or Flight response
A term used to describe the physiological preparedness of animals to deal with danger.
Tend and befriend
The arg. that chicks are more likely to protect and care for their offspring and form social alliances than flee or fight in response to threat.
General Adaptation Syndrome
A consistent pattern of responses to stress that consists of three stages; alarm stage, resistance stage, and exhaustion stage.
Nonspecific stress response
Study found tripartite pattern of bloated adrenal glands, atrophied lymphatic structures, and stomach ulcers as hallmark responses to many varied stressors.
Science supporting GAS theory
Stressor leads to activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA. During stress response H secretes a hormone called Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), triggers pituitary to release adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) into bloodstrean. ACTH acts on Adrenal cortex (a) to release glucocorticoids (cortisol) a steroid hormone. It's the cortisol that produces many of the bodily effects of stress, when levels are high the CNS shuts down ACTH release but cortisol still lingers in blood stream. Adrenal glands also release norepinephrine and eponephrine.
Psychoneuroimmunology
The study of the body's immune system in response to psychological variables.
Lymphocytes
Specialized white blood cells known as B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells that make up the immune system.
Antibodies
Protein molecules that attach themselves to foreign agents and mark them for destruction.
Primary appraisals
(coping)
Involves making decisions about whether a stimulus is stressful, benign, or irrelevant.
secondary appraisal
When people evaluate their options and choose coping behaviors.
Emotion focused coping
Trying to prevent having an emotional response to a stressor.
Problem focused coping
Involves taking direct steps to solve a problem
Positive reappraisal
A cognitive process in which people focus on possible good things in their current situation.
Hardiness
A personality trait that enables people to percieve stressors as controllable challenges
Buffering hypothesis
Proposes that other people can provide direct support in helping individuals cope with stressful events.