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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
immediate awareness of thoughts, sensations, memories, and the world around you
circadian rhythms
body rhythms that occur over a period of a 24 hour cycle
suprachiasmatic nucleus
a small cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus that is the internal pacemaker which regulates cicadian rhytms
jet lag
cross several time zones in a short period of time which discrupts circadian rhytms (shift work can do the same thing)
Hans Berger
German who invented the electronenecephalograph

measures the rhythmic electrical activity of the brain
pattern of activity associated with sleeping
Pattern of Brainwaves
1 - Alert Awake - beta waves, high frequency, low voltage
2 - Quiet Awake or Drowsy - alpha waves, high frequency, low voltage
3 - Stage 1 Sleep - some theta waves
4-6 - Stage 2 Sleep through Stage 4 Sleep
7 - REM sleep - theta waves
Typical Nights' Sleep
1 - quickly though stages 1-3
2 - stage 4 - decreases as night goes on
3 - first REM comes 90 min after falling asleep
4 - REM cycles more frequently & longer periods (most people have 5 a night)
Why do we sleep?
1) maintain homeostasis
2) organize info in the brain from the previous day
How much sleep do we need?
*varies during lifetime from 16hrs/day for infants to about 6 hours a day for elderly
*most people need 7-8
*very few sleep more than 10 or less than 5
Sleep disorders
1 - Insomnia
2 - Sleep Apnea
3 - Sleeptalking, sleepwalking, and night terrors
4 Types of Insomnia
1 - Situational Insomnia: (b/c of situation going on in life)
2 - Benign Insomnia: no chemical problem
3 - Arrhythmic Insomnia: due to circadium rhythms
4 - Drug Related Insomnia
Sleep Apnea
difficulty breathing
(what Mom has)
Night terrors
Sigmund Freud's reason why we dream
He says dreams are a symbolic emergence of repressed wishes which would provoke extreme anxiety if in the conscious mind

Manifest v. Latent content

Manifest is what you believe the dream was

Latent content is symbolic to sex
REM rebound
when people in sleep labs are prevented from having REM sleep, the next time they are allowed to sleep all night they have lots of REM sleep
Lucid dreams
dreams in which you are aware that you are dreaming
temporary state of heightened suggestibility in which people will oftem follow instructions given to them
Posthypnotic amnesia
a person will not recall what happened in hypnosis after a return to consciousness until a signal is given
Posthypnotic suggestion
people will carry out that specific suggestion after hypnotic session is over
sensory stores
info from environment around you
3 Types of Sensory Stores
1- Iconic - visual "Photographic Memory"

2- Echoic - auditory

3- Haptic - tactile (touch)
Short Term Memory
*Temporary Working Memory
*Miller's Magic # - 7 +/- 2
Long Term Memory
*Involves encoding (getting info into the memory), storage, retrieval
*Encoding Phenomena
3 Types of Encoding Phenomena
1- Elaborative Rehearsal - elaborate on info trying to remember(attaching to something you already know)
2- Subjective Organization - relates to you
3- Visual Imagery - the more dramatic, the better it is encoded
Types of Long Term Memory
1- Implicit Memory - nondeclarative memory without memory (typing story)
Procedural Memory - how to do something

2- Explicit Memory - memory with awareness
Episodic Memory - autobiographical memory
Semantic Memory - declarative memory, memory facts
Retrieval Cue Failure
*Tip of the Tongue Phenomena
*Testing Retrieval
1. Free Recall - fill in the blank
2. Cued Recall - matching
3. Recognition - multiple choice
*Serial Position Effect - memorizing things that have to be in particular order
Content Effect
studying in same place that you learned it; studying at the same place everytime
Mood Congruence
happy - good memories
sad - bad memories
State Depent Effect
altered states of consciousness- need to be in the same state; if you drank coffee when studying; then take coffee before the test
Flashbulb Memories
very detailed & clear memories of specific events
Reconstructing memories
Eye witness testimony- very inreliable b/c story may bring back an old memory that influences the story
inability to recall information
Encoding Failure
it never got into long-term memory
Intereference Theory
something else we learned is clogging
2 Types of Intereference Theory
1. Retroactive Intereference - new info interferes with old info
2. Proactive Intereference - old info interferes with new info
Motivated Forgetting
1. Suppression - refusing to think about it
2. Repression - unconsciously forgetting
Decay Theory
memory decays after certain amount of time
Biological Basis for Memory
Carl Lashley - search for engram (unit of memory)

Eric Kendel - Aplesia - both function & structure of neuron is altered when we learn something
process of making sure LTM is stable
Retrograde Amnesia
unable to remember some of all of past
Anterograde Amnesia
loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories

1. Implicit - memories without consciousness
2. Explicit - memories with conscious awareness