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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which aspect of Hobbes's philosophy of materialism could be considered a precursor to a science of psychology?
C. The belief that thought is a result of physical processes in the brain.
Hobbes's materialism proposed that:
B. The soul is a meaningless concept and that apparently voluntary choices are the result of mechanistic operations of the body and brain.
Which philosophical movement claimed that the human mind consists of elementary ideas that origniate from sensory experience?
B. empiricism
Wundt's pioneering studies of human reaction time are most relevant to the area of contemporary psychology known as:
A. cognitive psychology
Wundt's search for elementary mental processes that combine to produce complex mental processes led to which of the following schools of thought?
D. Structuralism
Which of the following schools of thought considered psychology as a search for the mind's elementary parts and the laws by which they are combined?
In the context of Titchener's search for the most elementary sensory experiences, introspection is a research method involving a detailed verbal report on:
A. one's own conscious sensory experience
Suppose a person is shown an emerald. Which of the following statements sounds as though the person is engaged in introspection in one of Titchener's experiments?
"Green, rectangular, hard, lasting, clear."
Select the alternative that best distinguishes Watson's version of behaviorism from Skinner's.
C. Watson focused on how environmental stimuli produce certain behaviors, whereas Skinner focused on how behavior operates on the environment to produce consequences.
John B. Watson is typically called an S-R psychologist. Why does this label not fit B.F. Skinner?
b. Skinner was less interested in stimuli than in responses and their consequences.
Which of the following is true of both Watson's and Skinner's version of behaviorism?
c. Both theorists argued that unobservable events or mediating concepts, such as ideas or needs, are not useful as explanatory constructs in psychology.
Early ethologists such as Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen were most impressed by evidence:
b. of complex, adaptive hehavior that is not due to learning.
freud's speculations about the existence of an unconscious mind probably arose from his:
d. interviews with patients whose complaints could not be explained physiologically.
The most distinctive aspect of Freud's theory of psychoanalysis is the belief that the conscious mind is influenced by:
d. unconscious thought processes.
Acentral tenet of humanistic psychology is that all people possess an inborn actualizing tendency, which:
a. orients the person toward creative activity.
Which of the following assumptions about human nature is not central to the humanistic psychology of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow?
b. People engage in creative activity to help themselves satisfy basic needs that humans share with other animals.
One of the major goals of humanistic therapy is to aid the individual in developing:
d. positive self-concepts.
Piaget contributed greatly to cognitive psychology through his accounts of:
b. intellectual development in children.
Chomsky argued that language must be understood not in terms of stimulus response chains but in terms of mental rules that are in part wired into the brain as a result of evolution. His position is, most explicitly, as attack on:
b. behavioral psychology.
Which development has contributed most to the cognitive revolution that has taken place in psychology in the past four decades?
c. increased understanding and use of computers
Barry observes that mice are more active at night than during the day. He thinks their activity levels are governed purely by the light available to them rather than the time of day itself-the lower the light, the greater the activity. He predicts that switching the normal light-dark will therefore switch the activity cycle of the mice, causing them to be more active during the day. If Barry were to test his prediction and find that the mice were still more actrive at night, he would need to revise:
c. his hypothesis about the connection between intensity of light and activity levels.
Which of the following is a lesson to be learned from the case of Clever Hans?
d. We should not be drawn into believing something without exploring alternative explanations for it.
A psychologist hypothesized that people are more likely to help a young man in trouble than an old man in trouble. He conducts a study in which a collaborator falls down, pretending to have a heart attack. The incident is staged repeatedly. Each time, the psychologist counts the number of people who come to the aid of the "victim." In design this study is_____, and the data collection procedure used is _____.
a. an experiment; observation
The various groups that participate in an experiment will necessarily differ from each other with respect to the:
b. independent variable.
A psychologist interested in the effects of music on concentration gives three similar groups of subjects a task requiring concentration and has each group listen to a different type of music while completing the task. The psychologist is conduction a(n):
a. experiment.
A researcher has two groups of subjects, one that has been taught a memory aid and one that has not. Both groups are asked to learn a list of 20 nons in two minutes, and both are then given a recall test. What is the independent variable?
c. whether or not the subjects have heen taught the memory aid
A psychologist hypthesized that highly stressful childhood experiences are associated with mental distress later on in adulthood. To test this hypothesis she identified a group of people who suffered experiences in childhood and a group who hadn't, and then determined how many in each group had experienced a period of severe mental distress in adulthood as defined by inpatient psychiatric treatment for two weeks or longer. This study is an example of a(n):
b. correlational study.
A university counseling office is profiling the different types of problems that bring students in and the percentage of cases in each category. This type of research design is a:
d. descriptive study
The correlation between scores on a pre-employment test and subsequent ratings of performance on the job was found to be -1.25. Based on this correlation coefficient, you would be justified in telling the company that:
d. they should get another statistician.
A correctional coefficient of -0.90 would indicate:
d. a strong correlation.
Suppose, to determine whether college men or women are faster sprinters, you located 15 women at the sports complex and 15 men at the library and asked them to all run a 100-yard dash. Suppose the women ran faster than the men, and the results were statistically significant. The most justified criticism of this study is that the :
b. samples were biased.
A professor wants to draw some conclusion about how her students regarded her course. The professsor administers a questionnaire to students who received an A in the course on the grounds that they will take more seriously than students who received a lower grade. The most obvious problem with this technique is:
c. a nonrepresentative sample.
A measure is reliable if it:
a. yields similar results each time it is used to measure a particular subject.
Facilitated communication, by which autistic children were supposedly able to answer questions, express emotions, and describe events in their lives, provides a classic illustration of:
a. observer-expectancy effects.
If the answers that a research subject gives to interview questions are affected by the preconceived notions of the interviewer, the answers are biased by:
a. the observer-expectancy effect.
What is the purpose of using a placebo in a drug experiment?
c. to determine whether the drug has any effect beyond that produced by the subjects' own expectations.
If the people receiving a particular experimental treatment behave in a particular way because of their own expectations about the treatment, we say:
a. there is a subject-expectancy effect.
While waiting with other subjects for a psychological experiment to begin, someone repeats a rumor that the experiment is designed to assess racist attitudes. During the experiment, these subjects take care not to communicate any racist attitudes. If the rumor is true, the results obtained from this group of subjects will be:
b. biased because of the subject-expectancy effect.
A double-blind study protects against:
c. both a. and b.

(subject-expectancy effects and observer-expectancy effects.)
Ethical issues in human psychological research involve all of the following except the:
d. use of invalid intruments in data-gathering procedures.