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54 Cards in this Set

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Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of
selective attention.
Nightmares are to ________ as night terrors are to ________.
REM sleep; Stage 4 sleep
Unconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to
occur simultaneously on several tracks.
Insomnia is a disorder involving
recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep.
Sleeptalking may occur during
any stage of sleep.
After suffering a trauma, people commonly report an increase in
threatening dreams.
Research has indicated that hypnosis
enables some people to undergo surgery without anesthesia
People hypnotized for pain relief may show activity in brain areas that receive pain sensations but not in brain areas that make us consciously aware of the pain. This most directly supports the theory that hypnosis involves
dissociation.
A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simultaneously with and yet separately from other thoughts is called
dissociation.
Compared with environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of thei
synapses.
The preservation of innovation best illustrates the survival value of
culture.
Male self-identity is to ________ as female self-identity is to ________.
independence; interdependence
The prenatal development of the external male sex organs is stimulated by
testosterone.
Children's tendency to classify toys and songs as either masculine or feminine is most likely to facilitate the process of
gender typing.
After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.
extinction
Because his football coach frequently yells at him for swearing, Antonio now becomes anxious when he's near his coach. The coach is a(n) ________ for Antonio's anxiety.
conditioned stimulus
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
sweating in hot weather
Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
extinction.
Dogs conditioned to salivate when rubbed on their front paws also began to salivate when other parts of their bodies were rubbed. This best illustrates
generalization.
Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. At first her mother granted every request, but now she does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will
continue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software?
respondent behavior
Dr. Raheja places a rat in a small, glass-enclosed chamber where it learns to press a bar to obtain a food pellet. Obviously, Dr. Raheja is using a ________ to study learning
Skinner box
Money is to food as ________ is to ________.
secondary reinforcer; primary reinforcer
Janna's behavior is more strongly influenced by the momentary thrill of unprotected sex than by the prospect of an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. This best illustrates the impact of
immediate reinforcement.
The process of modeling is most closely associated with
observational learning.
Mr. Zandee has stopped smoking because he wants to model healthy behavior patterns for his children. Mr. Zandee is apparently aware of the importance of ________ in his children's development.
observational learning
Like European Christians who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis, civil rights activists of the 1960s had parents who
modeled a strong moral or humanitarian concern.
Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for
observational learning.
Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
observational learning.
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called ________ memory.
iconic
The rear area of the ________ grows bigger the longer a London cab driver has been navigating the maze of city streets.
hippocampus
The letters Y, M, O, M, R, E are presented. Jill remembers them by rearranging them to spell the word “MEMORY.” This provides an illustration of
chunking.
Research suggests that a memory trace is most likely to involve
synaptic changes.
Information learned while a person is ________ is best recalled when that person is ________.
drunk; drunk
Ebbinghaus found the task of learning new lists of nonsense syllables increasingly difficult as his research career progressed. Which of the following best explains his problem?
proactive interference
The misinformation effect refers to the
incorporation of misleading information into one's memory of an event.
An attorney uses misleading questions to distort a court witness' recall of a previously observed crime. This best illustrates
the misinformation effect.
Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Judy's poor memory most likely results from a failure in
retrieval
Retroactive interference involves the disruption of
memory retrieval.
Kevin did not know whether the locker room was located down the short hallway to his right or down the long hallway to his left. Crossing his fingers, he decided to try the short hallway. His problem-strategy best illustrates
trial and error.
As he attempted to spell the word receive, Tim reminded himself “i before e except after c.” Tim's self-reminder best illustrates the use of
a heuristic.
Stockbrokers often believe that their own expertise will enable them to select stocks that will outperform the market average. This belief best illustrates
overconfidence
Many people underestimate the number of nonfatal heart attacks because they are not as memorable as fatal heart attacks. This illustrates the shortcoming of relying on
the availability heuristic.
People are often positively impressed by research that supports their own point of view. Asking them whether they would have been equally impressed by the same research if it had provided results that disputed their point of view is likely to inhibit
belief perseverance.
Women show ________ facial expression of emotion than men while viewing frightening films, and they show ________ facial expression of emotion than men while viewing happy films.
more; more
When the mayor ordered a salary increase for the city's police officers, there was a sudden loss of morale among the city's firefighters. The firefighters' sudden dissatisfaction best illustrates
relative deprivation.
People from different cultures are most likely to differ with respect to
how they interpret hand gestures such as the “thumbs up” signal.
People experience a mood shift when they switch from taking short shuffling steps to taking long strides and swinging their arms by their sides. This best illustrates
the behavior feedback phenomenon.
In the 1920s, Walter Cannon discovered that stress produced an outpouring of ________ into the bloodstream.
epinephrine and norepinephrine
After stockbrokers who lived alone had adopted a pet cat or dog, they were able to face stress with less ________ than their counterparts without pets.
blood pressure increase
When 15,000 Canadians were asked whether they were trying to take on too many tasks at once, responses indicated highest stress levels among
young adults.
AIDS is a disorder of the
immune system.
Shortly after exercising ________, people become less restrained in their aggressive responses to provocation.
self-control
Unrealistic optimism could best be described as a(n)
self-serving bias.