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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
limbic system
a group of brain areas involved in emotional reactions and motivated behavior (amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus)
amygdala
brain structure involved in the arousal and regulation of emotion and the intial emotional response to sensory information (assesses dange or threat)
hippocampus
brain structure involved in the arousal and regulation of emotion and the initial emotional response to sensory information (shape like seahorse) gateway to memory.. sends the memories to different places
cerebrum
the largest brain structure, consisting of the upper part of the brain; divided into two hemispheres, it is in charge of most sensory, motor, and cognitive processes
corpus callosum
the bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
cerebral cortex
collection of several thin layers of cells covering the cerebrum; it is largely responsible for higher mental functions
occipital lobes
at the lower back part of the brain.. visual cortex
parietal lobes
at the top of the brain contain the somatosensory cortex which receives info about pressure, pain, touch, and temp.
temporal lobes
at the sides of the brain they are involved with memory perception and emotion and have the auditory cortex
frontal lobes
contain motor cortex which ordersthe 600 muscles of the body that produced voluntary moement... helps with the ability to make plans, think creatively and take initiative
electrodes
used to produce and overall picutre of electrical activity in different areas of the brain
electroencephalogram (EEG)
a recording of neural activity detected by electrodes "it's like standing outside a baseball stadium"
Central Nervous System
portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Spinal Cord
collection of neurons and supportive tissue running from the base of the brain down the center of the back, brotected by a column of bones
peripheral nervous system
all portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord; it includes sensory and motor nerves
sensory nerves
carry messages from special receptors in the skin, muscles, and other internal and external organs
motor nerves
carry orders from the cnetral nervous system to muscles, glands, and internal organs (enabling us to move)
part of the peripheral: somatic nervous
connects to sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles (sometimes called the skeletal nervous system)
part of the peripheral: autonomic nervous system
regulates the internal organs and glands (bloodvessels, glands), think nervousness like as in crush
part of autonomic: sympathetic nervous system
mobilizes body resources and increases output of energy during emotion and stress
part autonomic: parasympathetic nervous system
operates during relaxed states, conserves energy
neuron
a cell that conducts electrochecmical signals; the basic unit of the nervous system; also called a nerve cell
glia
cells that support, nurture, and insulate neurons, remove debris when neurons die, enhance the formation and maintenace of synapses, and modify neuronal functioning
dendrites
neuron's branches that receive information from other neurons and transmit it toward the cell body
cell body
part of the neuron that keeps it alive and determines whether it will fire (transmit message to other neuron)
axon
neuron's extending fiber that conducts impulses away from the cell body and transmits them to other neurons
myelin sheath
fatty insulation that may surround the axon of a neuron
nerve
a bundle of nerve fibers (axons and sometimes dendrites) in the peripheral nervous system
neurogenesis
production of new neurons from immatur stem cells
stem cells
immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells; given encouraging envrionments, stem cells from early embryos can develop into any cell type
synapse
site where transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occurs; it includes the axon terminal, the synaptic cleft, and receptor sites in the membrane of the receiving cell
action potential
a brief change in electrical voltage that occurs between the inside and the outside of an axon when a neuron is stimulate; it serves to produce and electrical impulse
neurotransmitter
chemical substance that is released by a transmitting neuron at the synapse and that laters the activity of a receiving neuron
serotonin
affects neurons involved in sleep, appetite, sensory perception, temperature, pain suppression, and mood
dopamine
affects neurons involved in voluntary movement, learning, memory, emotion
acetylcholine
affects neurons involved in muscle action, cognitive functioning, memory, and emotion
norepinephrine
affects neurons involved in increased heart rate and the slowing of intestinal activity during stress, and neurons involved in learning, memory, dreaming, waking from sleep, and emotion
GABA
function as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
glutamate
excitatory neurotransmitter
endorphins
chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates; they are involved in pain reducation, pleasure, and memory
hormones
chemical substances secreted by organs called glands affect the functioning of other organs
endocrine glands
internal organs that produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream
melatonin
secreted by the pineal gland, helps to regulate daily biological rhythms and promotes sleep
adrenal hormones
hormones produced by the adrenal glands that are involved in emotion and stress
sex hormones
hormones that regulate the development and functioning of reproductive organs and that stimulate the development of male and femal sexual characteristis; they include androgens, estrogens, and progestrone
lesion method
involves damaging or removing section of brain in animals, then observing the effects
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
a method of stimulating brain cells, using a powerful magnetic field produced by a wire coil placed on a person's head; it can be used by researchers to temporarily inactivate neural ciructs and is also being used therapeutically
PET scan (positraon-emission tomography)
method for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain, using injections of a glucoselike substance containing a radioactive element
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
method for studying body and brain tissue, using magnetic fields and special radio receivers... functional can tell what is active or quiet
localization of function
specialization of particular brain areas for particular functions
Brain stem
part of the brain at the top of the spinal cord consisteng of the medulla and the pons
pons
involved in sleeping, waking and dreaming (In brain stem)
medulla
responsible for bodily functions that aren't conciously willed (breathing and heart rate) in the brain stem
reticular activating system (RAS)
dense network of neurons found in the core of the brain stem; it arouses the cortex and screens incoming information (couldn't be alert w/o this)
cerebellum
brain structure that regulates movement and balance and ths is involved in the learning of certain kinds of simple responses (back part of brain)
cerebellum
brain structure that regulates movement and balance and ths is involved in the learning of certain kinds of simple responses (back part of brain)
pituitary gland
hangs down from the hypothalamus small endocrine gland at the base of the brain, which releases many hormones and regulates other endocrine glands
who created phrenology, and specialization of function?
Joseph Gall
thalamus
brain structure that relays sensory messages to the cerebral cotex...CENTER OF BRAIN..."traffic officer"
olfactory bulb
controls sense of smell (front of brain) near emotional center, cues smell
hypothalamus
under thalamus, survival of human and species, reproduction, hunger, emotion regulates body temperature... AUTONOMIC, under it pituitary
lateralization
each hemisphere has its own tasks
wernicke's area
in temporal lobe language comprehension
broca's area is where and what does it handle
frontal lobe, speech production
what part of the brain did the rod go thru phineas gage's head
prefrontal cortex (29% of human cortex)
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RIGHT AND LEFT HEMISPHERE
right=intuitive & holistic
left=rational and analytic