Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
social psychology
the branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others
attribution processes
how do people us attributions to explain behavior
person perception
the process of forming impressions of others
social schema
organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people
widely held beliefs that peoplehave certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group
illusory correlation
occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen
a group that one belongs to and identifies with

a group that one does not belong to or identify with
inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behavior , and their own behavior
internal attributions
external "
ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings

ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints
Kelly's covariational model
based on the assumption that people attribute behavior to factors that are present when the behavior takes place and absent when it does not

consider consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus
is the actor's behavior in a situation the same over time?
is the person's behavior unique to the specific entity that is the target fo the person's actions
do other people in the same situation tend to respond like the actor
have studies supported kelly's model?
yes mostly, but people are not as deliberate as he makes them out to be, judgements are often colored by illogical biases
fundamental attribution error
refers to observers' bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others' behavior
defensive attribution
tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way
self-serving bias
the tendency to attribute one's successes to personal factors and one's failures to situational factors
involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships
involves putting goup goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the group one belongs to
how does individualism and collectivism relate to patterns of attribution
collectivist cultures are less prone to the fundamental attribution error and to the self-serving bias (exhibit self-effacing bias instead)
interpersonal attraction
refers to positive feelings toward another
matching hypothesis
proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners
involves liking those who show that they like you
partners are especially happy when they idealize one another
passionate love
complet absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion
companionate love
warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one's own
sternberg's expansion of companionate love
refers to warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship

an intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise
positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought
3 types of components in attitudes
cognitive, behavioral, affective
behavioral components
attitude made up of beliefs that people hold about the object of an attitude
attitude consists of the emotional feelings stimulated by an object of thought
consists of predispositions to act in certain ways towards an attitude object
attitudes vary in:
strength, accessibility, and ambivalence
determinants of attitude strength:
importance, vested interest, knowledge and information
why don't attitudes lead directly to behavior?
may contradict common norms to act on an attitude
four parts of persuasion:
source, receiver, message, channel
source factors
credibility: expertise, trustworthiness,
likablity: physical attractiveness, similarity
message factors
fear appeal vs. logic
one vs two sided arguments
repetition: validity effect (repeating a statement causes it to appear to be more valid)
do appeals to fear work?
yes, if they actually raise fear
receiver factors
preexisting attitudes: disconformaion bias (scrutinizing arguments which go against existing attitudes)
learning theory
classical conditioning can create affective components (pairing celebrities and products)

operant conditioning: agreement from others about an attitude reinforces it

observational learning: another person's attitudes may rub off on you
dissonance theory
inconsistency among attitudes propels people in the direction of attitude change (paid to tell others that the experiment was interesting, those paid less later said it was more interesting than those who were paid more)
effort justification
if you work hard and the reward sucks you'll say the reward was better than it really was (women had to read oscene passages in order to get into a discussion on sexuality then the discussion was boring)
is dissonance supported?
yes, mostly, people need different levels of cognitive consistency

E. Aronson-believes this occurs only when it is between self-concept and one's behvior

Steel and J. Aronson-occurs when people behave in a way that threatens their sense of self worth
Bem's self-perception theory
infer their attitudes from their behavior (as opposed to the traditional view in which behaviors extend from attitudes)
elaboration likelihood model
2 routes:
central people carefully ponder content of message

peripheral depend on nonmessage factors (the source for example)
occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure
lines, in unambiguous stimuli people resist conformity, though they still do

once one person breaks the conformity, subject is much more likely to also do so
form of compiance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
milgram's studies
obedience, shocking another person for mistakes (65% administers 30 levels of shocks)
consists of two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent
4 things most groups have
roles, norms, communication structure, power structure
bystander effect
people are less likely to provide needed helf when they are in groups than when they are alone
social loafing
reduction in effort by individual when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves
group polarization
occurs when group discussion strengthens a groups's dominant point of view and producs a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction
occurs when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision
group cohesiveness
refers to the strength of the liking relationships linking gorup members to each other and to the group itself
is groupthink more likely if there is higher cohesiveness?
Janis claims that it is, but critics claim that it reduces it