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60 Cards in this Set

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If you saw someone with their eyebrows raised and drawn together- what emotion would you think they were expressing?
Fear
Who wrote "The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals"?
Darwin 1872
Give an example of animals and humans sharing facial and postural expressions that have common origins and functions.
When animals are angry they bare their teeth. Man will do this sometimes too.
explain how the expression of emotion can communicate information about events that help organisms adapt.
Fear quickly drives blood into large muscles (ready for action-running) and surprise raises the eyebrows so the eyes widen and collect more information.
According darwin, emotion is stregthened when accompanied by________________ and weakened when it is not.
Muscular activity.
advocates of the "facial feedback hypothesis" believe:
That making a certain facial expression will result in the corresponding emotion.
Who studied college students in 1988, testing how facial expressions effected emotions; one group of students had pencils in their lips to prevent them from smiling, the other held them in their teeth. Of course, they found the ones that were able to smile were also____________.
Strack and Colleague
Find a farside comic to be funny.
Who proposed the "Opponent Process Theory of Emotion"
Richard Solomon. (1980s)
Who named a region of the brain the limbic system in the 1950s? The limbic system is involved in emotion, but not central to emotion.
Paul MacLean
The hippocampus is used mostly for _________.
The hypothalmus is used mostly for__________.
a.)memory
b.)motivation
The two most important brain regions in emotion are:
the amygdala
prefrontal cortex
The______________ is a small almond shaped structure that is, according to Joseph LeDoux, central to emotional learning.
the amygdala
Brain imaging studies show that increased activity in the amygdala during an emotional event is associated with improved________________ for that event.
longterm memory.
Researchers currently believe that the amygdala modifies how the hippocampus consolidates memory.
The amygdala is also involved in recieving ___________ stimuli. i.e. reacts to a variety of emotional facial expressions, especially sensitive to the facial expression of__________.
social;fear
Removal of the amygdala results in _________________.
Kluver-Bucy syndrome.
Animals with the Kluver-Bucy syndrome:
lack_________
lack__________
become___________
rage response
fear response
become hypersexual
Humans with damage to the amygdala show ________ when confronted with dangerous situations- but they show an impairment in being conditioned to fear. They don't learn to fear certain things.
fear.
Humans with damage to the amygdala fail to recognize_________ and fail to use these to make good interpersonal judgements
facial expressions.
The___________________ is involved in assessing the potential reward value of situations and objects.
prefrontal cortex.
People with damage to the ___________ tend to be insensitive to the emotional expression of others and also have difficulty controlling emotions.
prefrontal cortex.
Who worked on cerebral assymetry and emotion?
Davidson and Colleagues.
Unequal activation of the left and right hemispheres of the brain are associated with specific emotional states. This is known as ______________.
Cerebral assymetry.
In cerebral assymetry- activation in the right hemisphere is associated with:
negative effect (sadness)
wihdrawal emotions (a symptom of clinical depression.)
in cerebral assymetry, activation in the left hemisphere is associated with:
positive effect (happiness)
approach emotions (outgoing, loving, good stuff.)
_________ is a disorder caused from a lack of subjective experience involving emotion. They are bland, colorless, unaware of other's feelings, and tend to be men who come from families who lack communication.
alexithymia.
at _________ old, a child produces sadness at the withdrawal of a positive stimulus.
3 months.
at _________ old, a child learn that emotional expression is more than just making faces and sounds; it requires timing an understanding of context, and knowledge of the audience.
2 years.
at __________ old, a child's emotions become highly differentiated. They develop the self conscious emotions of _______ and __________.
3 years. shame & guilt.
________ results when an individual senses failure to live up to a set of standards (this person will want to hide, disappear, or die)
Shame.
_________ results when an individual evaluates his/her behavior as a failure and focuses on the specific features of the self or actions that led to the failure. This person is pained by his/her evualuation of the failure. It is usually associated with a corrective action.
Guilt.
According to _____________ and colleagues (1998) parents play an important role in socializing children about emotion.
Eisenburg.
According to Eisenburg, a child who grows up with adults who encouraged conversations about emotional experiences may be:
Better able to communicate their own emotions. (emotional competence)
and
Have a better understanding of other's emotions. (social competence)
__________ is a social act- we rarely do it while we are alone.
smiling.
We can recognize a smile from as far as _________ ft. away and there are at least ______ different types.
300; 18
The french physician Guillaume Duchenne de Boulogne recognized different types of __________ by examining different facial muscle movements.
smiles
When people put on a phoney smile they smile with their ________ not their eyes. A genuine smile is defined as a _________ smile.
cheeks. duchenne.
Smiling is influenced by ________; for example in the U.S. smiling is a typical greeting to a customer... not so in Korea- a korean store owner might be percieved as hostile by americans.
Display rules
According to Mayer (2005)happiness is not correlated with ____ or _______.
sex or age
The correlation between income and happiness is ______.
weak.
In a meta-analytic study by DeNeve and Cooper (1998) the correlation between happiness in personality was fairly ______.
weak
The strongest predictor of happiness is:
neuroticism
_____________ did a study on the happiness of 222 college students (2002) who reported their emotions everyday for 51 days. Using stringent criteria they identified 24 people who could be considered the happiest.
Diener and Seligman
In Diener and Seligman's study, list the similaries between the happiest students and the other students.
GPA
Money
Self consciousness
physical appearance
how they spent their time
List three things that seperated the happiest students from the other students in Diener and Seligman's study:
More satisfied with their lives.
Never though about suicide.
Could recall more positive events than negative events.
reported more happy than unhappy emotions.
Had quality relationships in every area of their lives.
List three of the happiest countries.
List three of the saddest countries.
happy: denmark, sweden, switzerland
saddest: Japan, Greece, and Portugal
name the electronic device that senses and records changes in several physiological indices including blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and galvanic skin response.
polygraph - "lie detector"
Relevant/Irrelevant Technique and Control Question Technique are considered ______________ approaches.
Direct Question
When a person is asked relevant(criminal) and irrelevant (neutral) questions it's called ____________. If the person is involved in the crime there should be emotional weight differences.
Relevant/Irrelevant Technique
__________ compares questions that should have the same emotional weight. This helps the detective see more specifically what aspects the suspect is involved in.
Control Question Technique
Guilty Knowledge Testing and Guilty Action Testing are part of _______________ approaches.
Indirect Question
This type of testing uses only indirect questions the guilty person would be in a position to answer (i.e. what color were the walls). An innocent person should be indifferent in responding- a guilty person will have difficulty and respond selectively.
Guilty Knowledge Testing
This method of testing has a better track record than CQT. In fact, the guilty are detected 84% of the time and the innocent are detected 94% of the time.
Guilty Knowledge Testing
This is a modified version of guilty knowledge testing that focuses more on the actions that the guilty may have committed.
Guilty Action Testing.
True or False... most state and federal courts prohibit the testimony based on Lie Detectors.
True.
__________________ prohibits most employers from using polygraph tests for employment purposes.
The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988.
One of the big problems with polygraph screening is that it's unreliable and its more efficient in detecting the _________ than the _________.
Innocent 81%-100%
Guilty 64%-100%
That greatest problems with the lie detector is that it detects ______ and ________, not lies.
guilt and fear
since polygraphs measure physiological responses people can use ____________ to prep themselves such as drugs, physical measures (biting their tongues), or mental methods.
Countermeasures
_____________ are looking at functional MRIs, thermal imaging technology, and reaction time.
Future lie detecting devices
__________ shows that detecting lies is very difficult since there are many different ways that people can lie... different parts of the brain are activated.
Neuroimaging.