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16 Cards in this Set

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sensorimotor stage
birth – 2 years
learn through concrete actions
coordinate sensory information with bodily movements
object permanence – understanding that an object continues to exist even when you cannot see it or touch it; occurs by age 1 for most babies
beginning of mental imagery and symbolic thinking
jean piaget
swiss biologist
observed children and noticed predictable patterns of cognitive developm
preoperational stage
ages 2-3 years
use of language and symbols accelerates
make-believe play
still lack abstract principles and mental operations
egocentric – see the world only from their point of view
concreate operations stage
ages 7-12 years
able to take perspective of others
understand concept of conservation – physical properties of objects remain the same even when their physical form of appearance changes
formal operations stage
ages 12 – adulthood
abstract reasoning
understand that ideas can be compared and classified just as objects can
able to reason about situations they have not experienced first-hand
current views of cognitive development
cognitive abilites develop in continuous overlapping waves rather than discrete steps
preschoolers are not as egocentric as piaget thought
children understand more and some adults less than piaget assumed
cognitive development is associated with growing speed and efficiency of information processing
cognitive development depends on education and culture
erik erikson
german psychologist
neo-freudian
psychosocial stages of personality develop
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Personality Develop
eight stages
each stage characteriszed by a crisis that ideally will be resolved before moving onto the next stage
unlike frued's theory, erikson's stages go throughout the lifespan
erikson - trust vs mistrust
birth – 1 year
baby dependent on others for survival
needs must be met if baby is to develop sense that the world is a safe and that others are trustworthy
erikson - autonomy vs shame/doubt
around ages 1-3
child must develop a sense of independence
erikson - initiative vs guilt
around ages 3-5
child acquiring new phsyical and mental skills, setting goals, and developing new talents
child must also learn to control impulses
must avoid developing a strong sense of guilt over newfound wishes and fantasies
erikson - competancy vs inferiority
about ages 6-12
learning to make things, use tools, and acquire the skills for adult life
child discovers areas of strengths and weakness
erikson - identity vs role confusion
adolescnce
who am I?
What am i going to do with my life?
Identity crisis
erikson - intimacy vs isolation
young adulthood
after developing a sense of who you are, the next task is to share yourself with someone else
learn to commit yourself to someone else
erikson - generativity vs stagnation
middle adulthood
seek creativity and productivity
contribute to society
parenthood
erikson - ego integrity vs despair
late adulthood
look back on life and consider accomplishments
seek wisdom, spiritual tranquility, acceptance of life