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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
THEORY
is an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior.
CONTINUOUS
A process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with.
DISCONTINUOUS
A process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.
STAGES
Qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development.
CONTEXTS
or unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of changes.
NATURE-NURTURE CONTROVERSY
Are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development
RESILIENCE
The ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development
TABULA RASA
Translated from Latin
meaning "blank slate"
NOBLE SAVAGES
Naturally, endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth.
MATURATION
refers to a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth.
NORMATIVE APPROACH
which measures of behavior are taken in large numbers of individuals, and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.
PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE
Children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. They way these conflicts are resolved determines the persson's ability to learn, to get along with other, and to cope with anxiety.
PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY
Emphasizes that how parents manage theier child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years of life is crucial for healthy personality development.
PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY
Erikson emphasized that the ego does not just mediate between id impulses and superego demands. It is also a positive force in development. At each stage, it acquires attitudes and skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society.
BEHAVIORISM
Directly observable events-stimuli and responses-are the appropriate focus of study.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Emerged. The most influencial, devised by Albert Bandura, emphasized MODELING, otherwise known as IMITATION or OBSERVATIONAL LEANING, as a powerful source of development.
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
Consists of procedures that acombine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses.
CONGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT THEORY
children actively construct knowledge as they manupulate and explore their world.
INFORMATION PROCESSING
the human mind might also be viewed as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows-a perspective.
ETHOLOGY
is concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history.
SENSITIVE PERIOD
is a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. However, its boundaries are less well defined than are those of a critical period. Development can occur later, but it is harder to induce.
EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY
it seeks to understand the adaptive value of species wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competences change with age.
SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
It focuses on how culture-the values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group-is transmitted alogues with more knowledgeable members of sociaty- is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture.
ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORY
views the child as developing within a complex system or relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
CHILD DEVELOPMENT
the study of devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence and emerging adulthood.