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102 Cards in this Set

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Developmental Psychology
the branch of psychology that studies the age-related physical, intellectual, social, and personal changes that occur throughout a persons lifetime.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
the # 1 leading cause of mental retardation and birth defects. When too much alcohol is consumed during pregnancy, especially the first trimester.
Brain plasticity
During the end of pregnancy and the first two years, the brain is constantly creating new synapses to receive information from other cells. The new cells that generate are called dendrites.
Object Permanence
The ability to recognize that objects still exist evn when they are out of sight. (Sensorimoter Stage Birth-2 years)
Law of Conservation
The ability to recognize that physical properties of an object remain the same despite superficial changes in the object's appearance. (Preoperational Stage 2-7 years)
Kohlberg’s moral reasoning
3 levels of Moral Development

1. Preconventional Level: decisions about right and wrong are made primarily in terms of external consequences

2. Conventional Level: Stage where actions are judged to be right or wrong based on whether they maintain or disrupt social order

3.Postconventional: Moral actions are judged on the basis of personal codes of ethics that are general and abstract and that may not agree with societal norms
Erikson’s stages
Trust vs Mistrust: (1st year) Developing a sense of trust in others.
Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt: (terrible twos) Developing a sense of self control, or doubting abilities.
Initiative vs. Guilt: (3-6 years) Trying to carry out ones own plans or feeling guilty about doing stuff on their own.
Industry vs. Inferiority: (6-12 years) Developing a sense of personal ability and competence.
Identity vs. Role Confusion: (adolescence) Who am I?
Intimacy vs. Isolation: (young adulthood) Finding a relationship or feel alone
Generative vs Stagnation: Look at what contributions to the world you have made, or feel worthless
Integrity vs Despair: Acceptance at one's life, success or failure?
Reliability
How OFTEN a result appears in experiments. Showing up with the same answer often measures reliability
Validity
Whether or not an answer is RIGHT. Not concerning with how often it happens but whether or not it is valid.
Case Study
a psychologist conducts an instensive investigation of a person or group in order to draw general conclusions about behavior.
Independent Variable
aspects of an investigation that are individual that are individually manipulated or carefully regulated by the experimenter while other aspects of the investigation are held constant.
Dependent Variable
outcome responses whose values depend on one or more independent variables influence or affect the participants in the experiment
Experimental Condition
participants are exposed to a carefully prescribed set of circumstances.
Control Condition
The participants receive an alternative treatment.
Correlational Studies
Assess the degree of relationship between two or more variables or attributes. Number on a scale that ranges from -1 to 0 to 1
Animal Research
Research on animals
Anatomy of a Neuron
Cell body (contains the nucleus) Dendrites (widely branching structures that recieve transmissions from other neurons. Axon (single long thin straight fiber with bunches near its tip)
Parts of the brain (VERY basically)
Two hemispheres, cerebral cortex (outer covering of forebrain) Occipital Lobe (vision) Parietal Lobe (body senses) Temporal Lobe (hearing and complex vision Frontal Lobe (control of fine movements) Thalamus (controls muscles of the head)
Gestalt Psychology
feild that focusess on our ability to percive overall patterns (reversible figures) (figure and ground)
Retinal Disparity
The difference in the apparant position of an objectas seen by the left and right retinas.
Monocular Cues
Enable a person to judge depth and distance with just one eye.
Binocular Cues
These depend on the action of both eyes.
Echoic Memory
The memory of sound that can be held for brief intervals to help auditory perception.
The Echo
Lingering sound in the memory
Iconic Memory
Breif Lingering sight held for visual perception.
The Icon
The sight
Chunking
A short term memory stategy that involves rearranging incoming information into meaningful or familiar patterns.
Flashbulb memory
Rich records of circumstances surrounding emotionally significant and surprising events.
Method of loci
Placing different things you have to remember in different rooms of your home.
Peg word method
1 bun 2 shoe ....
Long Term Memory
System used to maintain information for extended periods of time.
Loftus & Palmer Vehicle accident study
Used word smashed and contacted to describe the accident to witnesses. Smashed-42 miles an hour
Contacted-32 miles am hour
Repression
Defense Mechanism unknowingly used to push treatening thoughts, memories, and feelings out of conscience awareness.
Morpheme
Smallest speech unit that conveys meaning.
Phoneme
Smallest speech units that can be percieved.
Functional Fixedness error
The tendancy to percieve an item only in terms of its most common use.
Mental Set error
Persisting in using problem-solving strategies that worked in the past.
Algorithm
Methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem.
Heuristic
A guiding principle or "rule of thumb" used in solving problems or making decisions.
IQ
Intelligance Quotient
Emotional Intelligence
Measure of emotional intelligence can predict how well they will do in school, work, and in relationships. The ability to perceive and express emotion, understand and reason with emotion and regulate emotion.
Motivation
The dynamics of behavior. The way in wich our actions are initiated, sustained, directed, and terminated.
Primary Motives
based on biological needs that must be met for survival. hunger, thirst, pain, sleep...
Set Point
The body's proportion of the fat that it maintains.
Anorexia
Eating disorder where the victim does not eat anything
Bulimia
Eating disorder where the victim binges and then throws up.
Galvanic Skin Response
during a lie detector test, this measures very fine perspiration.
Theories of Emotion
James Lange-emotional feelings follow bodily arousal. see bear, run, are aroused, and then feel fear.

Cannon-Bard theory-emotional feelings and bodily arousal are felt at the same time.

Schachters Cognitive Theory- EMotion occurs when physical arousal is identified. (friend or stranger)
Stages of sleep & characteristics of each
Awake
Drowsy
Stage 1- light sleep (1-7 minutes)
Stages 2,3,4- respiration rate, heart rate, muscle tension, and body temperature slowly decline.
Stage 2- 10-25 minutes
Stage 3,4- slow wave sleep
Dream Theories
Freud- wish fulfillment
Cartwright-oppurtunity to work everyday problems
Activation Synthesis model-a story is created to make sense of internal activities.
Learning
A change in Behavior as a result of experience.
Behaviorist
psychologists who insist that psychologists should study only observable, measurable behhaviors, not thought processes.
Skinner
Radical Behaviorist, when you say "I intend to" what you mean is "I am about to"
UCS
unconditioned stimulus. food
when no training is needed for this to produce a reaction
UCR
unconditioned response. saliva
reaction produced from a UCS with no training necessary.
CS
Conditioned Stimulus. Dog needs to be trained. Whistle
CR
Conditioned response. training. salivate after hearing the whistle
Reinforcement
An event that follows an action that will ensure the liklihood of the action being repeated. (reward child with candy)
Punishment
Follows action to decrease the chance of future occurences (Punish child spanking)
Positive/Negative
positive reinforcement(give money to kid when they are good)
Neg. Reinforcement-reinforces by avoiding something bad(brush teeth to avoid tooth decay)
Neg. Punish- Punishes to avoid something good.(grounded)
Skinner
radical behaviorist.
Skinner box
Box which was lifted by a lever to produce food. Rat could press with paw instead of nose and it still counted bc all that mattered was the outcome.
Personality
individuals unique consistant behavior traits.
The Big Five
O.C.E.A.N
Openness
Conscientiousness
Extraverion
Agreeableness
Neurotism
Freud
Psychoanalyctic theory. Behavior is governed by unconscience factors which they are unaware. Adult personality shaped by childhood experience. How ppl cope with sexual rage.
Defense Mechanisms
largely unconscience reactions
that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
Psychosexual Development
Freud.
Oral(first year) stimulation of mouth
Anal(second year) pleasure controlling or not controlling bowel movements
Phallic(age 4) penis envy, oedipal complex
Latency and genital(6-puberty)
Abnormal Behavior
behavior that is not normal, unwanted, disrupts everyday life
Schizophrenia
victim loses touch with reality. halucinations, delusions, and/or inappropriate behavior (laughing at a funeral) Lasts at least 6 months increased dopamine in the brain. Abnormal patterns of eye movement.
Depression
Feeling of severe and prolonged sadness that occurs in reaction to stress or chemical imbalances in the brain.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
depressed an lethargic in winter due to decreased amount of time in sunlight.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
people feel anxious but their anxiety has no specific focus
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
obsession- irresistable thought(germ)
compulsion-irresistable urge to perform some act over and over again(wash hands)
Panic Disorder
For no clear reason, suddenly overwhelmed with fears of imminent disaster or death.
Phobia
fear far out of proportion
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Multiple personality- everything could change when switching personalities, including heart rate posture etc.
Psychoanalysis
determined by freud, uses dreams and other things to reach into persons unconscience to figure out what bothers them.
Existential Therapy
Emphasizes a persons ability to take control of their lives
Behavioral Therapy
Employs techniques based on principles of conditioning
Cognitive Therapy
Technique designed to change the beliefs and attitudes that underlie maladaptive behavior
Biomedical Therapy
intended to change the underlying physiological mechanisms
Social Schemas
organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people. (marraiges, family reunions etc.)
Stereotypes
Widely held beliefs that ppl have certain charicteristics bc of their membership in a particular group.
Ingroup/Outgroup
Ingroup-group you belong to

Outgroup-group you dont belong to
Social Loafing
A reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves.
Group Cohesiveness
refers to the strength of the liking relationship linking group members to each other and the group itself
Foot-in-the-door technique
involves getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
obsession- irresistable thought(germ)
compulsion-irresistable urge to perform some act over and over again(wash hands)
Panic Disorder
For no clear reason, suddenly overwhelmed with fears of imminent disaster or death.
Phobia
fear far out of proportion
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Multiple personality- everything could change when switching personalities, including heart rate posture etc.
Psychoanalysis
determined by freud, uses dreams and other things to reach into persons unconscience to figure out what bothers them.
Existential Therapy
Emphasizes a persons ability to take control of their lives
Behavioral Therapy
Employs techniques based on principles of conditioning
Cognitive Therapy
Technique designed to change the beliefs and attitudes that underlie maladaptive behavior
Biomedical Therapy
intended to change the underlying physiological mechanisms
Social Schemas
organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people. (marraiges, family reunions etc.)
Stereotypes
Widely held beliefs that ppl have certain charicteristics bc of their membership in a particular group.
Ingroup/Outgroup
Ingroup-group you belong to

Outgroup-group you dont belong to
Social Loafing
A reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves.
Group Cohesiveness
refers to the strength of the liking relationship linking group members to each other and the group itself
Foot-in-the-door technique
involves getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later.