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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What must tests be?
both reliable and valid
What is a case study?
an in-depth description of one individual
produces consistent results
send info to other neutrons
center of retina, contains only cones, site where vision is sharpest
What causes a change in a dependent variable?
the independent variable (since all else stays the sa
What are the 2 parts of the nervous system?
1. central
2. peripheral
basic unit of nervou ssystem
middle ear
waves strike eardrum which passes them to 3 tiny bons wich intensify the force of the vibration
What are the 3 parts of the ear?
1. outer ear
2. middle ear
3. inner ear
respond to color
the ability to retain and retreive info
difference thresholds
difference in sensation detectable 50% of time
inner ear
contains receptor cells (hair cells) located within the cochlea wich initiate nerve impulses which travel to the brain
pituitary gland
controls many other endocrine glands
What influences perception?
needs, beliefs, emotions, and expectations
How do we smell?
receptors in mucous membrane of nasal passage
What are the 4 basic tastes?
1. salty
2. sour
3. bitter
4. sweet
parietal lobes
sensoy info
Who was the forefather of classical conditioning?
What are the skin senses?
1. touch (pressure)
2. warmth
3. cold
4. pain
organization and interprettion of sensations
questionaires and interviews
short term memory
- limited capacity (7 +/- 2 items)
- info held for about 30 seconds then it's forgoten or further encoded and placed in long term memory
stimulus discrimination (classical conditioning)
different resposes are made to stimuli whichare similar to the CS
insulates axon to enable info to be transmitted faster
elaborative rehearsal
associating new with old info
sensory memory
limitated copy of info - held for 1-2 seconds
accessing info
retention of info
What are the 3 memory systems?
1. sensory
2. short term
3. long term
directs sensory messages
mantainance rehearsal
long term memory
- unlimited capacity
- info stored and received by category
Why do people lose their short term memory?
1. limited capacity subject to "filling up"
2. can retreive info through rehearsal
info conduit
Why do people forget in their sensory memory?
receive info from other neurons
stimulus generalization (classical conditioning)
similar simuli may elicit the same response as teh CS
Describe Pavlov's experiment?
UCS (food) elicits an unconditoned response (salivation)
forgetting in long term memory
1. decay
2. retreival difficulty
Why would there be retreival difficulty in long term memory?
1. interference (similar items interfere)
2. multivated (concious or unconcious "hiding" of memory)
3. cue-dependent (unable o gain access to the info)
outer ear
collects sound waves
gaps between nuerons
negative reinforcement
operant conditioning - response followed by removal of unpleasant stimulus
frontal lobes
motor movements
respond to dim light
parts of the forebrain
1. thalamus
2. hypothalamus
3. pitutary gland
4. cerebral cortex
postive reinforcement
operant conditioning - resopnse followed by presentation of reinforcing stimulus
What does a reinforcer (reward) do?
increases response probability
What are the 2 types of observation?
naturalistic and laboratory
opeant conditioning - stimulus that follows response decreases probability reponse will occur
What are the principles of operant conditioning?
- extinction
- stimulus generalization
- stimulus discrimination
- timing of reinforcers
- schedule of reinforcement
parts of the hindbrain
- medulla
- pons
- reticular activating system
- cerebellum
extinction (classical conditioning)
when the CS is no presented with the UCS, it will diminish
naturalistic observation
observation of the natural environment
responsible for reflxive, automatic behavior
How does info travel between neutrons?
- message travels through axon to synaptic knob on axon's tip
- synaptic vesicles open and release neurotranmitters into synaptic gap
- nerotransmitter fits into receptor sites on receiving dendrite, causing it to be more less likely to fire
cell body
keeps nuerons alive
stimulus discrimination (OC)
responses do not occur to different stimuli
timing of reinforcers (OC)
the sooner a reinforcer or punisher follows an action, the greater its effect
What are the parts of the cerebral cortex?
1. occipital lobes
2. parietal lobes
3. temporal lobes
4. frontal lobes
researcher controls variable(s) to discover its effect on othr variables
How does the eye work?
1. light enters through the cornea
2. lens focuses light on the retina
3. at the back of the eyeball (rods, cones and fovea)
schedules of reinforcement (OC)
- continuous reinforcement
- intermittent reinforcement
stimulus generaliziton (OC)
response will occur to similar stimuli
intermittent reinfocement
OC - reinforcing only some responses
continuous reinforcement
OC - a paricular response is always reinforced
occipital lobes
Weber's Law
change necesary for the JND is a proportion of the original stimuli
laboratory observation
observation in a setting controlled by a researcher
peripheral nervous system
sensoy and motor nerves which transmit info
What are the goals of psychology?
describe, understand, predict, and control (or modify) behavior or mental processes
emotion and survival drives
sympathetic system
expends energy
variable interval (VI)
reinforcement after a variable amunt of time, low, steady rate of response
awareness of physical changes
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical and mental state and external environment.
fixed ratio (FR)
reinforcement after a fixed of responses, high rates of responding
variable ratio (VR)
reinforcement after average # of responses, very high, steady rates of responding
reinforce successice approximations to the desired response
experimental and control groups
only experimental group exposed to independent variable, otherwise treated the same
correlational stdies
strength of relationships between variables, doesnot show causation
fixed interval (FI)
reinforcement after fixed amountof time, scalloped response pattern
parasympathetic system
conserves energy
absolute threshold
detection of signal 50% of the time
What are the 2 parts of the periphera nervous system?
1. somatic
2. autonomic
measures what they are designed to measure
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
somatic system
controls skeletal muscles
Which is the most dominant hemisphere for most people?
extinction (OC)
response no longer reinforced
What are the 2 parts of the autonomic system?
1. parasympathetic
2. sympathetic
dependent variable
measured by researcher (data)
independent variable
manipulated/controlled by researcher
temporal lobes
processes sounds
What are the 2 parts of the autonomic system?
1. parasympathetic
2. sympathetic
autonomic system
regulates internal organs and glands