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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
personality
a person's characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling
psychoanalysis
freud's theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders; focuses on unconscious processes
conscious
the thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given moment
preconscious
the thoughts, feelings, and memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment but that may be easily brought to consciousness
unconscious
for freud, the primary motivating force of human behavior containing repressed memories as well as instincts, wishes and desires that have never been conscious
id
the unconscious system of personality, which contains the life and death instincts and operates in the pleasure principle. Source of the libido
Ego
in freud's theory, the logical, rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates according to the reality principle
Superego
the moral system of the personality which consists of the conscience and the ego ideal.
What are the three levels of awareness according to Freud?
Consciousness
Preconscious
Unconscious
Which is the only part of personality that is present at birth?
The id
What are the life instincts?
sexual instincts, biological urges (hunger, thirst)
What are the death instincts?
aggressive or destructive impulses
What is the pleasure principle?
seek pleasure,avoid pain, gain immediate gratification
-followed by the id
Which part of personality can only fantasize and demand?
the id
libido
psychic energy that fuels personality
Where does the ego evolve from and where does it draw its energy from?
the id
Reality principle
ego uses this to decide when to satisfy id.
-consider restraints of the real world, decide when, where, what is appropriate for id's gratification
What are the two parts of the super ego?
the conscience and the ego ideal
Conscience
all behaviors for which child was punished and feels guilty
ego ideal
behaviors for which the child was rewarded or praised, feels pride or satisfaction
-initially parent's expectations, later incorporates social world
which part of the personality sets guidelines that define and limit the ego's flexibility?
Superego
According to freud what is the most frequently used defense mechanism?
repression
defense mechanism
a means used by the ego to defend against anxiety and to maintain self-esteem
psychosexual stages
stages through which sexual instincts develop, each with an erogenous zone around which conflict arises
fixation
arrested development at a psychosexual stage occuring because of excessive gratification or frustration at that stage
repression
involuntarily removing an unpleasant memory, thought, or perception from consciousness or barring disturbing sexual and agressive impulses from consciousness
projection
attributing one's own undesirable traits, thoughts, behaviour, or impulses to another
denial
refusing to acknowledge consciously the existence of danger or a threatening situation
rationalization
supplying a logical, rational, or socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action or event
regression
reverting to a behavior that might have reduced anxiety at an earlier stage of development
reaction formation
expressing exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of disturbing unconscious impulses and desires
displacement
substituting a less threatening object of person for the original object of a sexual or aggressive impulse
sublimation
rechanneling sexual and aggressive energy into pursuits or accomplishments that society considers acceptable or even admirable
oedipus or elektra complex
occurring in the phallic stage, a conflict in which the child is sexually attracted to the opposite-sex parent and feels hostility toward the same-sex parent
When does the oral stage occur?
birth to one year
What is the erogenous zone of the oral stage?
the mouth
When does the anal stage occur?
1-3 years
What is the erogenous zone of the anal stage?
the anus
When does the phallic stage occur?
3- 5 or 6
What is the erogenous zone of the phallic stage?
genitals
When does the latency stage occur?
5 or 6 years - puberty
What is the erogenous zone of the latency stage
there is none
When does the genital stage occur?
puberty onward
What is the erogenous zone of the genital stage?
genitals
social-cognitive theory
personality can be defined as a collection of learned behaviors acquired through social interactions
reciprocal determinism
bandura's concept of a mutual influential relationship among behavior, cognitive factors, and environment
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory(MMPI)
most extensively researched and widely used personality test, which is used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders; revised as MMPI-2
validity scales
asses test taker's truthfulness
projective test
people respond to inkblots, ambiguous situations, or incomplete sentences by projecting their inner thoughts, feelings, fears or conflicts onto the test materials
rorschach inkblot method
a projective test composed of 10 inkblots that the test taker is asked to describe, used to assess personality, make differential diagnoses, plan and evaluate treatment and predict behavior
thematic apperception test
projective test composed of ambiguous human situations which the test taker describes, thought to reveal inner feelings, conflicts and motives which are projected onto the test materials
inventory
paper and pencil test with questions about a person's thoughts feelings and behaviors, measures several dimensions of personality and can be scored according to a standard procedure
-objective test