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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
everything you are aware of
altered state of consciousness results when there is a.....
change in awareness produced by sleep, meditation, hypnosis, or drugs
circadian rythms
24-hour cycle of highs and lows for bodily functions and behaviors
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
a pair of tiny structures in the brain's hypothalamus that control the timing of circadian rhythms and biological clock
Most significant environmental cues for circadian rythm?
bright light, sunlight
subjective night
time during 24 hour period when biological clock is telling a person to go to sleep
How does working during subjective night affect alertness and performance?
it deteriorates it
restorative theory of sleep
sleep restores body and mind
circadian theory of sleep
"evolutionary theory", sleep evolved to keep humans out of harm's way during night
NREM sleep
non-rapid eye movement, four stages of sleep characerized by slow, regular respiration and heart rate, little body movement, absense of rapid eye movements, blood pressure and brain activity at 24 hour low
REM sleep
characterized by rapid eye movements, paralysis of large muscles, fast and irregular heart and respiration rates, increased brain activity and vivid dreams
during which stage of sleep is epinephrine released?
REM sleep
How does REM affect learning?
it may be critical to consolidation of memories after learning
REM rebound
increased amount or REM sleep that occurs after REM deprivation; often associated with unpleasant dreams or nightmares
What are some causes of REM rebound? (3)
withdrawal from drugs, sleep loss, illness
sleep cycle
period of sleep, 90 minutes, including one or more NREM stages followed by REM sleep
sleep spindles
sleep stage 2 brain waves that feature short periods of calm interrupted by brief flashes of intense activity
Stage 1 sleep
light sleep, transition from waking to sleeping, irregular waves, alpha waves
Stage 2 sleep
sleep spindles, deeper sleep than stage 1,
Stage 3 sleep
brain activity slows, more than 20% delta waves
Stage 4 sleep
more than 50-100% delta waves
Delta waves
slowest brain-wave pattern; associated with stage 3 and 4 NREM sleep
What happens after 40 minutes of stage 4 sleep
ascend back through stage 3 and 2 and enter REM for 10-15 minutes, completing cylce, cycle repeats, after first 2 cycles begin to alternate between stage 2 and REM
slow wave sleep
deep sleep, stages 3 and 4
most consisten sleepers ages ?-?
6 to puberty
as age increases quantity and quality of sleep ____?
sleep disturbances in which behaviors and physiological states that normal take place only in the waking state occur while a person is sleeping
timing, quantity, or quality of sleep is impaired
incurable sleep disorder, excessive daytime sleepiness and uncontrollable attacks of REM sleep
sleep apnea
periods during sleep when breathing stops and the individual must awaken briefly in order to breathe
sleep walking,partial arousal in stage 4 sleep, sleepder doesnt regain full consciousness,
sleep talking, occurs in any stage
Sleep terrors
stage 4 sleep, begins with piercing scream, resolve quickly, early night
more frightening, REM sleep, early morning
parasomnia treatment
rule out underlying illness, sleep medication is last resort
dangers of sleep apnea
chronic high blood pressure, heart problems, death, brain damages,
how is sleep apnea treated
surgically modify upper airway
difficulty falling or staying asleep
temporary- caused by jetlag, emotional highs or lows, illness injury
chronic- reaction to medical or psychological problem
dysomnia treatment
give out medication because of life threatening nature
REM dream
occurs almost continuously during each REM period, storylike quality, more vivid and emotional
NREM dream
less frequent and memorable
Lucid dream
individual is aware of dreaming, individual able to influence dreams content
manifest content
content of dream
latent content
symbolic meaning of dream
cognitive theory of dreaming
dreaming is thinking while asleep
activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming
dreams are the brain's attempt to make sense of random firing of brain cells during REM sleep
Freuds theory on dreams
function to satisfy unconscious sexual and aggressive desires, things unacceptable to dreamer appear in symbolic form,
more focus on latent content
evolutionary theory of dreaming
REM dreams enable people to rehearse the skills needed to fend of predators
focus on something, to block out distractions, achieve altered state of consciousness
hypnotist uses suggestion to induce changes in a person
What do infants gain from sleep?
brain development
respite, or break, dont realize until it ends
-morphine, heroin
-mimic endorphins, pain relieving
alcohol, barbituates,
-act on GABA receptors , calms, reduces nervousness
amphetamines, cocaine
-triggers sympathetic nervous system
-suppress hunger and digestions
-mimic epinenphrine
physical dependence
user develops tolerance, withdrawal when drug use is discontinued
physiological dependence
irresistable craving for drug's pleasurable effects
daily residue
dreams empty garbage of daily life