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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define personality.
A person's most revealing, dominant and unique patterns of traits (meaning emotions and behaviors) that helps them to adapt to life situations
Who came up with the theory of the id, ego, and superego?
Sigmund Freud
What parts of the unconscious system does the id contain?
1) Life instincts (drives and urges)
2) Death instincts (aggressive and destructive impulses)
3) Pleasure principles (get pleasure, avoid pain)
4) Source of the libido (psychic energy)
What MORAL components of the personality does the superego contain?

1) the conscience (behaviors that are punished)
2) the ego ideal (behaviors that are praised)

*in children, reflects parent's expectations and expands over time incorporating the broader social world
What parts of the conscious system of personality does the ego contain?
1) the reality principle
2) draws energy from the id
*identifies urges and considers morals and compromises what is possible

ex: hungry = i want steak = not enough money = steal it! or earn more money = settle for a quick burger instead
Why are behaviorist theories more testable then psychoanalytic theories?
behaviors are visible where psychoanalytic aren't
Why are self-reports unreliable?
*Not objective and people tend to lie
*write about their ideal selves
What is Levinson's "Seasons of Life?" (stage approach)
Stage 1: Preadulthood (dependent to independent)
Stage 2: Early Adulthood (self- energy, stress lead to goals)
Stage 3: Middle Adulthood (impact on families and world)
Stage 4: Late Adulthood (acceptance of past, present, future)

Who came up with the idea of characteristics of traits?
Costa and McCrae
What are traits?
Generalized dispositions to thoughts, feelings, and behaviors tat endure over time

*Can be inherited or learned
**Manipulate various situations
What are the 5 Factors?
Hint: I paddle in a CANOE! :)
Describe neuroticism.
Anxiety, self-conscious, impulsiveness, stableness, depressed, vulnerability
Describe extroversion.
Attachment, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excietment-seeking, positive emotions
Descrive openness.
Willingness to experience the unfamiliar, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, values
Descrive agreeableness.
the quality of interpersonal relations
Describe conscientiousness
motivation, persistence, organization in goal-directed behavior
What does Costa state about habits, vigor, health, and responsibility in relation to stability of personality?
These circumstances may change, but personality does not and remains stable

Describe the contextual approach.
*Age has nothing to do with personality
*Dependent upon SOCIOHISTORICAL and personal circumstances (historical events that influence society i.e. 9/11)
*Social clock (marriage, profession... dictated by societal views)
What does the "antecedent life-event stressors" say?
all life events are stressful whether or not they are positive or negative

i.e.- getting married is positive through stressful process

i.e.- death of loved one in hospital is stressful (negative ending)
What are Mediating factors? Give an example of each category.
*Internal life events (physical health, intelligence)

*External life events (salary, social support)
What is individual time?
Timing of events on an individuals life (bring about different responses depending on timing)

*Ex: Death of a spouse at 30 versus death of a spouse at 70
What are the two theoretical approaches to developing personalities?
1) Similarities: Stage theorists

2) Differences: life-events frameworks
What are the 6 defense mechanisms identified by Freud?
1) Repression
2) Projection
3) Displacement
4) Reaction Formation
5) Regression
6) Denial
What is repression?
when a threatening idea or memory is blocked from consciousness
What is projection?
when a person's own threatening feelings are repressed and attributed to someone else (ex: Blacks are dirty-minded and oversexed)
What is displacement?
When emotions are directeted towards things that are not the real object of their feelings (ex: a younger boy mad at his father may take it out on his toys)
What is sublimation?
An aspect of displacement- gearing unacceptable impulses for the sake of civilization

ex: sexual desires are sublimated into the creation of art or literature
What is reaction formation?
when a feeling that produces unconscious anxiety is transformed into its opposite consciousness

ex: a woman afraid to admit that she fears her husband may cling to the belief that she loves him deeply
What is regression?
when a person reverts to a previous phase of psychological development

ex: young boy anxious about parents divorce may revert to thumb sucking
What is denial?
when people refuse to admit that something unplesant is happening
What did Freud argue as the Psychoanalytic theory of personality development?
1) Oral (mouth- smoking, sucking)
2) Anal (oranization)
3) Phallic (Oedipal/Oedipus Complex)
4)Latency (non sexual)
Genital (all sexual)
What is the "Jungian Teory?"
*a vast collective unconscious of archetypes
What does the MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) used to assess?
Personality disorders
What is reciprocal determnism?
Social cognitive theory- aspects of the enviornment (opportunities, rewards) and of the individual (tempermant, habits) help shape personality traits