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60 Cards in this Set

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Neurons
Cells that transmit information within the nervous system.
Glial cells (glia)
Cells in the nervous system that comprise the support system for the neurons.
Dendrites
Fibers projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to recieve information from other nerons.
Cell body
The part of the neuron that contains its nucleus and the other biological machinery to keep the cell alive and that decides whether or not to generate a neural impulse in order to pass incoming information onto other neurons.
Axon
The long, singular fiber projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to conduct the axon terminals triggering chemical communication with other neurons.
Myelin Sheath
An insulating layer covering an axon that allows for faster neurak impulses.
Neurotransmitter
A naturally occuring chemical in the nervous system that specializes in transmitting information between neurons.
Synaptic gap (synapse)
The microscopic gap between neurons across which neurotransmitters travel to carry their messages to other neurons.
Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
A visual display of the activity levels in various areas in the brain generated by detecting the amount of positron emission created by the metabolization of radioactive glucose in each area.
Functional magnetic reasonance imaging (fMRI)
A computerized image of the activity levels of various areas in the brain generated by detecting the amount of oxygen brought to each area.
Agonist
A drug or poison that decreases the activity of one or more neurotransmitters.
Antagonist
A drug or poison that decreases the activity of one or more neurotransmitters.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
A neurotransmitter involved in memory and muscle movement.
Dopamine
A neurotransmitter involved in attention, thought processes, reward centers, and movement.
Parkinson's disease
A disease in which the person has movement problems such as muscle tremors, difficulty initiating movements, and rigidity of
Blood-brain barrier
A protective mechanism by which the blood capillaries supplying the brain create a barrier that prevents dangerous substances access to the brain.
L-dopa
A drug for Parkinson's disease that contains the precursors to dopamine so that once it is in the brain, it will be converted to dopamine.
Serotonin snf norepinephrine
Neurotransmitters involved in levels of arousal and mood.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's)
Drugs that achieve their agnostic effect on serotonin by selectively blocking it's uptake.
GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)
The main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. It is involved in lowering arousal and anxiety and regulating movement.
Endorphins
A group of neurotransmitters that are involved in pain perception and relief
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The brain and the spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The part of the nervous system that links the CNS with the body's sensory receptors, muscles, and glands.
Interneurons
Neurons that intergrate information within the CNS through their communication with each other and between sensory and motor neurons in the spinal cord.
Sensory neurons
Neurons in the PNS that carry information to the CNS from sensory receptors, muscles, and glands.
Motor neurons
Neurons in the PNS that carry movement commands from the CNS out to the rest of the body.
Spinal cord
The conduit between the brain and the PNS for incoming sensory data and outgoing movement commands to the muscles.
Spinal reflex
A simple automatic action of the spinal cord not requiring involvement of the brain, such as the knee-jerk reflex.
Somatic (skeletal) nervous system
The part of the PNS that carries sensory input from the receptors to the CNS and relays commands from the CNS to skeletak muscles to control their movement.
Autonomic nervous system
The part of the PNS that regulates the functioning our our internal environment (glands and organs like the heart, lungs, and stomach)
Sympathetic nervous system
The part of the autonomic nervous system that is in control when we are highly aroused, as in an emergency, and need to prepare for defensive action.
Parasympathetic nervous system
The part of the autonomic nervous system that returns the body to its normal resting state after having been highly aroused, as in an emergency.
Endocrine glandular system
The body's other major communication system. Communication is achieved through hormones that are secreted by the endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream to their target sites.
Hormone
A chemical messenger that is produced by the endocrine gland and carried by the bloodstream to target tissues throughout the body.
Pituitary gland
The most influential gland in the endocrine glandular system. It releases hormones for human growth and hormones that direct other endocrine glands to release their hormones.
Emotion
A complex psychological state that involves a state of physiological arousal, an outward behavioral expression of the emotion, and cognitive appraisal of the situation to determine the specific emotion and its intensity.
James-Lange theory
A theory of emotion proposing that an emotion is determined from a cognitive appraisal of the physiological arousal and behavioral responses which occur first.
Cannon-Bard theory
A theory of emotion proposing that an emotion is determined from simulataneously occuring physiological arousal, behavioral responses, and cognitive appraisal.
Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
A theory of emotion proposing that an emotion is determined by cognitive appraisal of the physiological arousl and the entire environmental situation.
Medulla
A brain stem structure involved in many essential body functions, such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, digestion, and swallowing.
Reticular formation
A network of neurons running up in the center of the brain stem that is responsible for our different levels of arousal and conciousness.
Cerebellum
A part of the brain involved in the coordination of our movements, sense of balance, and motor learning.
Thalamus
A part of the brain that serves as a relay station for incoming sensory information.
Basal ganglia
A part of the brain that is involved in the initiation and execution of movements.
Limbic system
A group of brain structures (hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala) that play an important role in our survival, memory, and emotions.
Hypothalmus
A part of the brain that is involved in critical motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, sex and that directs the endocrine glandular system through its control of the pituitary gland.
Hippocampus
A part of the brain involved in the formation of memories.
Amygdala
A part of the brain that is involved in emotions by influencing aggression, anger, and fear and by providing the emotional element of our memories and the interpretation of emotional expressions of others.
Cerebral cortex
The layers of interconnected cells covering the brain's two hemispheres. This is the control and information-processing center for the nervous system; it is where perception, memory, language, decision-making, and all other higher-level cognitive processes occur.
Frontal lobe
The area in each cerebral hemisphere in front of the central fissure and above the lateral fissure. The motor cortex is in this lobe.
Parietal lobe
The area in each cerebral hemisphere in back of the central fissure and above the lateral fissure. The somatosensory cortex is in this lobe.
Temporal tube
The area in each cerebral hemisphere located beneath the lateral tissue. The primary auditory cortex is in this lobe.
Occipital lobe
The area located in the lower back of each cerebral hemisphere. The primary visual cortex is in this lobe.
Motor cortex
The strip of cortex in each cerebral hemisphere in the frontal lobe directly in front of the cerebral fissure, which allows us to move different parts of our body.
Somatosensory cortex
The strip of cortex in each cerebral hemisphere in the parietal lobe directly in back of the central fissure, which allows us to sense pressure, temperature, and pain in different parts of our body as well as the position of our limbs.
Association cortex
All of the cerebral cortex except those areas devoted to primary sensory processing or motor processing. This is where all the higher-level cognitive processing that requires the association (integration) of information, such as perception and language, occurs.
Broca's area
An area in the cerebral cortex responsible for fluent speech production. It is in the left frontal lobe of the majority of people, regardless of handedness.
Wernicke's area
An area in the cerebral cortex responsible for comprehension of speech and text. It is in the left temporal lobe of the majority of people, regardless to handedness.
Conciousness
An individual's subjective awareness of their inner thinking and feeling and their external environment.
REM (rapid eye movement) sleep
The stage of sleep that is characterized by rapid eye movements and brain wave patterns that resemble those for an awake state and in which most dreaming occurs. REM sleep in sometimes referred to as paradoxical sleep because the bodily muscles are immobilized but much of the brain is highly active.