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40 Cards in this Set

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Define Modeling?
Modeling is a form of learning where individuals ascertain how to act or perform by observing another individual.
What is observational learning?
The process of acquiring information by observing others. Learning to tie your shoe by observing another individual perform the task would be an example of observational learning.
What are the three parts of information processing system?
Encoding, storage,,retrieval
Encoding-Processing of info into the memory system

Storage- the retention of encoded information.

Retrieval-the process of getting information out of memory storage.
What is the difference between automatic and effortful processing?
Automatic processing- unconscious coding of incidental information as time, space, word meanings.

Effortful processing -encoding that requires attention and effort.
What is spacing effect?
Tendency to retain information by distributed study than mass study.
What is Seriel Position Effect?
This term is a memory-related term and refers to the tendency to recall information that is presented first and last (like in a list) better than information presented in the middle
Fleeting photographcic memory is called?
Iconic Memory: Humans remember sounds and words in slightly different ways. Memory for visual stimuli is referred to as iconic memory, which can be defined as very brief sensory memory of some visual stimuli, that occur in the form of mental pictures
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli is called?
Echoic Memory: Humans remember sounds and words in slightly different ways. Memory for sound is referred to as echoic memories, which can be defined as very brief sensory memory of some auditory stimuli. Typically, echoic memories are stored for slightly longer periods of time than iconic memories (visual memories).
What part of the brain processes explicit memories for facts?
Cortex
Multiple choice questions test our
Recognition: Recognition is identifying something you learned previously and is therefore stored in some manner in memory. For example, taking a multiple choice test requires you to identify material you learned and not necessarily "recall" information learned previously
Fill in the blank questions test our?
Recall: Recall is simply bringing a thought or idea learned previously, and thus stored in memory into conscious awareness. When you remember something you are actually "recalling" the memory.
Eerie sense that you experienced somelthing before called?
Déjà Vu: From French, literally meaning "already seen,' Déjà vu is that eerie sense of "I've experienced this before." Deja Vu is that eerie sense of "I've experienced this before."
Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood is called?
MOOD-CONGRUENT MEMORY the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood.
What are the 7 sins of memory?
Absent-mindness, Transcience, Blocking, Misattribution, Suggestibility, Bias, Persistence
Define ABSENT-MINDNESS
Inattention to details. Ex. mind elsewhere as we lay down keys.
Define TRANSIENCE.
TRANSIENCE - storage decay. Ex. Unused information fades.
Define BLOCKING.
Inaccesible information. Ex. A word is on the tip of our tongue.
DEFINE MISATTRIBUTION.
Confusing the source of words in someone elses mouthor remembering a move scene as an acutal happening.
Define SUGGESTIBILITY
The lingering effects of misinformation. Ex. asking a child if someone touched private parts which later becomes child false memory
Define BIAS
Belief colored recollections. Ex. persons current feelings for fiance may color their recalled inital feelings
Define PERSISTENCE
unwanted memories...ex. sexual assault
Source amnesia along with_____is at the heart of false memories
Misinformation
How accurate are our memories?
Not.
Why DO WE FORGET?
We fail to encode information. We do not effortly process.
What are 3 ways we problem solve?
Algorithm- logical way of solving a problem with guaranteed results.

Heuristics- simple thinking stragegy that allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently

Insight- sudden often novel realization of te solution to a problem
What are the obstacles in solving problem?
BIAS- Tendency to search for information that confirms our preconceptions while ignoring information that might prove us wrong.

Fixation - refers to an inability to adopt any different or new perspective on a problem
Define overconfidence
Tendency to be more confident than correct.
What are the 4 influences on our intutitions about risk?
1. Fear what ancestry history has prepared us to fear. Ex. Snakes

2. Fear what we cannot control

3. We fear what is immediate. Ex.

4. Fear what is most readily available in memory. Ex. Horrific images of 911, we use this to judge risks of doing things like driving, flying.
What are the stages of language development?
Babbling Stage
One word Stage
Two word stage
Define LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM
Wharfs hypothesis that language determines the way we think
What is the relationship between thinking and language?
Words convey ideas, and different languages embody different ways of thinking.
What is mental age?
But determing a person's mental age, or the age-level at which they function mentally or intellectually,
What is the formula for intelligence?
MA/CA x 100 Mental age times chronological age times 100
What are the 3 aspects of intelligence?
Analytical Intelligence- academic problem solving

Creative intelligence - the ability to formulate new or clever solutions to problems.

Practical intelligence - ability to translate theory into practice and abstract ideas into practical accomplishments
What intelligence test is used to measure intelligence
Wechsler adult intelligence scale WAIS Tells how the test taker compares with
What are the 5 components to creativity?
Expertise-Well developed base of knowledge

Imaginative thinking skills- ability to see things in a new way, make connections

A venturesome personality - Tolerates ambituity and risk, persevere despite obstacles

Intrinsic motivation-Motivated because of interest, enjoyment,

Creative environment-Support by friends, relatives, aids in refining creative ideas
What are the principles of test construction?
Standardization - defining meaningful socres by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group

Reliablity - Extent to which a test yields consistent results

Validity- Extent to which a test measures or predicts what is supposed to.
What are the degrees of mental retardation?
Mild-learn academic skills up to 6th grd. self supportive with assistance

Moderate-2nd grd level, Adults may contrib to own support laboring in sheltered workshop

Severe- May learn to talk, perform simple work tasks but unable to profit from vocational training.

Profound-Constant aid and supervision
The more hours of violent programming watched by children are at risk for?
Agression and crime as teens and adults
At 14, compared with those who watch less than an hour of tv daily, those who watch more than three hours at this age commit_____times as many aggressive acts at age 16-22
Five times