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127 Cards in this Set

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What is a neuron?
The individual cell that acts as an information processor for the nervous system.
What was significant about Phineas Gage?
A three foot iron rod was shot through his cheek and into his frontal lobe --> a good example of a clinical case that let scientists learn about the workings of the frontal lobe.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
creates strong magnetic pulses on the scalp that temporarily disrupts brain function.
CT scan
A series of X rays that are used to construct a composite image of the brain.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Use a high frequency alternating magnetic fields throughout the brain. Magnetic sensors detect the reverbrations and identify which brain tissue the vibrations came from, constructing a picture.
EEG
Reveals brain function
detects tiny electrical currents on the surface of the brain
Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
Patient is injected with a dose of radioactive substance that has a similar structure as glucose (the only sugar the brain uses), so when a certain area of brain is stimulated by senses, the radioactive isotope is detected.
fMRI
Detects changes in blood flow and oxygen in the brain to determine which parts are the most active at any moment.
What are two ways that the nervous systems differ from each other?
In centralization and in size
Ganglia
relay messages from the sense organs to the muscles
hind brain

midbrain

forebrain
hindbrain- closest to the tail
forebrain-closest to the head

midbrain- in the middle
medulla
-regulates the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
-controls reflexes like swallowing
-helps us maintain balance
pons
integrates movements of the face ears and tongue
Cerebellum
hangs behind the pons and controlls overall bodily balance
- learning movement/motor skils
midbrain controls:
body temperature/pain perception
- targeting sound
The deep front to back clevage in the middle of the cortex is the...
longitudinal fissure
where is the thalamus located and what does it do?
-sits atop the midbrain

- acts as a relay station for sensory info going to the cortex
hypothalamus
-lays under the thalamus

- controls motivated behavior like feeding drinking and sexual activity
basal ganglia
-lie astride the thalamus

-regulate muscle contraction (parkinson's disease)
limbic system
-surrounding the thalamus and basal ganglia lying below the cortex

- includes amygdala and hippocampus
affrent nerves
transmit infromation from organs to brain
effrent nerves
transmit info from CNS to muscles and glands that are the organs of actions
Primary Projection Areas
Areas in the brain that roughly correspond to parts of the body that they represent or influence
Wilder Penfield
created a map that showed which parts of the primary motor cortex controlled which parts of the body.
somatosensory area
located in the parietal lobe behind the primary motor projection area, it receives sensory info from the skin
nonprimary projection areas
organize and relate the various messages that come from the sensory projection areas or go to the primary motor projection areas.
apraxias
-(disorder of action)
disturbances in the initiation or organizaion of voluntary action
- ie being asked to light a cigarette and putting the lit match in his mouth; problems in initiating the sequence or getting the components to fit together
agnosia
(disorder or perception)

-sufferers cannot identify familiar objects using sight (the damage is in the occipital lobe). They can recognize a car key by holding it but not by looking at it.
prosopagnosia
a type of agnosia in which patients have trouble recognizing faces.

-rarely not just confined to faces, sometimes a person who could identify lots of -different types of cars cannot etc.
neglect syndrome
'forget' left side of tasks
aphasia
disorder of language
nonfluent aphasia
-a disorder that involves the production of speech (understand words, but cannot speak)

-lesions in the posterior region of the frontal lobe in Broca's area
fluent aphasia
-patients can produce a 'word salad', but do not understand what is said to them.

-lesions are posterior part of temporal lobe in the Wernicke area
disorder of the prefrontal area
-such was the case with Phineas Gage, the front most part of the frontal lobe was severly damaged, leading to marked changes in personality.
-patients are unable to use rules
prefrontal lobotomy
-Edgar Moniz Leukotomy
-in the 1940's and 50's an icepick would be inserted through the eye and sever the connection between the thalamus and the frontal lobe
left hemisphere controls
-language

(dominant)
right hemisphere
-spatial cognition
cortex
-the most massive portion of the brain
-it size gives us flexibility in behavior
Describe HM's case study
-clonic seizure disorder
-sugeons resected medial temporal lobe and distroyed his hippocampus
Retrograde Amnesia
Cannot remeber past events
Anterograde Amnesia
Cannot lay down new memories
Festiger
Social psychologist
-did studies on apocolyptic believers
-inflitrated the group led by Mrs. Keich.
-Aliens spoke through her
-Flood
Even after a belief is disproved, people believe it even more strongly
cognitive dissonance
Strengths and weaknesses of Observation
Strengths: people act normally
Weaknesses: 1. potential bias of observers
2. cannot determine cause and effect
Objective Test
Try to be as impartial as possible. Performance based objective tests are the MCAT and SAT
Projective Tests
- look for patterns
- measures a skill or ability outside of conscious awareness.
inkblot
Strengths and weaknesses of tests
-easy to administer
-measures beliefs, attitudes and feelings

weaknesses:
difficult to develop and subjective scoring
Correlational studies
Strengths-
show how two phenomenon are related
allows for preliminary predictions
weakness of correlational studies
often times cannot untangle cause and effect. (latin in highschool-->better grades in college)
Strengths of experiments
identifies cause and effect
weakensses of experiments
situation is artifical and not always generalizable.
Explain what a control group is in terms of the candy experiment
The group that doesn't get the candy
What is the independant variable in the candy experiment?
The thing that we manipulate -Candy
What is the dependant variable in the candy experiment?
Memory- the thing that depends on the candy (independant variable)
Randomness in terms of candy expt.
People should be randomly selected, not all candy lovers should be in the same group.
Representitiveness (in terms of candy expt)
Group needs to reflect the general population
Random sampling
lottery, like with a jury
Stratified sampling
when the sample must accurately reflect the demographics of the larger population.
population
All members of a given group (all three year old boys, all autistic children)
sample
a subset of the population they are interested in.
matching (candy expt)
identifying one variable the might be linked to the dependant variable (memory). For example, gender. Therefore we put one woman and one man in both the control and experimental group.
experimental manipulation
The candy
demand characteristics
a cue in an experiment that signals that one outcome is more favorable than the other.
placebo effects
someone gets a faux m and m and performs better.

someone gets a faux pain drug and reports a decrease in pain.
confound
uncontrolled factors that could influence the results
within subject comparison
comparing a subjects behavior in one setting to the same subjects behavior in another setting.
counterbalancing
using one sequence for half of the subjects and the other sequence for the other half
placebo effects
someone gets a faux m and m and performs better.

someone gets a faux pain drug and reports a decrease in pain.
confound
uncontrolled factors that could influence the results
within subject comparison
comparing a subjects behavior in one setting to the same subjects behavior in another setting.
counterbalancing
using one sequence for half of the subjects and the other sequence for the other half
Axon
electrical impulse travels down axon.
dendrite
Where the axon terminals connect to to transmit the electrical impulse from one nerve to the next.
synapse
The small gap between the axon terminals and the dendrite
Neurotransmitters
(SAGEN)
Seratonin
Acetylcholine
GABA
endorphins
norapinephrine
Agonist/antagonist
Increases activity in the neuron (SAN)

Decreases cellular activity. (GABA)
amygdala
regulates emotional reactions
reuptake
recycling of neurotransmitters
lateralization
The function of the two sides of our brain are different.
Wernicke's area
plays a central role in the comprehension of speech
Broca's area
Plays a role in the production of speech.
Projective personality test
subject projects his/her personality onto a story or image.
TAT
Subject is shown a picture and must tell a story about it
Objective personality tests
pen and paper surveys asking specific answers
Psychodynamic approach
Human thoughts and acts are derived from childhood experiences.
Id
primitive portion of personality concerned only with biological urges and following pleasure principles
Ego
mediates between the id and superego
Superego
mediator between id and superego, logical portion of the personality reconciling desire and reality.
defense mechanisms
personal guards against anxiety
reaction formation
(defense mechanism) when an urge is replaced by an exact opposite urge
Projection
defense mechanism

putting ones own feelings onto someone else.
oedipus complex
child falls in love with mother, becomes jealous of father. fears father, then begins to imitate him to gain mothers affections.
Humanist Approach
behavior is driven by the desire to achieve ones potential ie, individuals naturally strive to improve themselves.
heirarchy of needs
Maslow
physiological, saftey, belonging, esteem, congnitve, asthetic, self actualization.
unconditional positive regard
Humanist psychology approach in which the therapist continually reaffirms the patient. This is also necessary for children to develop healthy self concepts
positive psychology
strives to define happiness and well being, not fixing problems, but achieving optimal human functioning.
bystander effect
witnesses of an emergency do nothing or react slowly when in a group
pluralistic ignorance
witnesses of an emergency look to to other witnesses to decide if they should act. since the other witnesses are doing the same thing and thus not reacting to the emergency, the witnesses decide that there is no emergency.
diffusion of responsibility
people assume someone else has helped the person in trouble and there is no emergency.
attribution of arousal theory
an individual interprets circumstances he or shi is in and uses this information to interpret physiological arousal as a certain emotion. man on scary bridge interprets heightened attraction for a pretty woman.
james lang theory
simulus causes autonomic response which is interpreted as emotion.
behavior therapy
believe in replacing old habits using pavlovian or reinforcement techniques.
cognitive therapy
confront patients directly with questions and help them pinpoint irrationality in their reasoning.
Perpetuating factors of MDD
sleeping, not eating, not bathing
M'Naughton case
defendant might not be responsible for actions because of a psycholgical disorder that hinders his ability to apprecitate the wrongness of his actions.
panic disorder
intense anxiety attacks and fear of having more anxiety attacks
negative symptoms of schizophrenia
emotional blunting, apathy, lack of speech
you can't afford john mayor tickets and an iphone, so you should work at taco bell to earn more money. which freudian conscious is this?
ego
dodo verdict
difference in psychotherapy techniques success in treatment is virtually non existant; they are all equal.
trait theory of personality
people are grouped according to basic underlying personlity characteristics.
defense mechanisms
keep anxious thoughts out of the conscious
Why did bystanders not intervene to help kitty genovese?
they were not sure whether she needed help.
Schatner and Singer theory
Once a drug is injected (adrenaline) into a patient, the emotion they feel is dependant on the situation at the time of injection --> either positive negative or absent.
Authortarian pattern of child rearing
"Because I am the mother!"
Kohlberg's stages of preconceived morality and moral behavior are governed by
avoiding punishment
syntax
rules by which words are combined
psychometric approach to intelligence
a untiary phenomenon rather than consisting of multiple intelligences
validity
does it test what we think it tests?
reliablity
are the results consistant over time?
rooting
an infants cheek is touched and it's head turn as if seeking a nipple.
Rem sleep vs. slow wave sleep
in rem sleep, we have inactivated body muscles and are less sensitive to external stimuli
left brain controls the right side of the body
contraltaral control
social cognitive theories of hypnosis say that it works b/C
people think they know how a person who is hypnotized should behave.
someone who has lung cancer and who thinks "at least i'll get to learn more about death"
emotion focused coping
signal detection theory says what, that classical psychosocial theory does not?
sensitity and response criterion
rodent can discriminate between water and 1% salt solution
difference threshold
short term memory
short duration and a small capacity