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25 Cards in this Set

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For classical conditioning to be most effective and long lasting, the conditioned stimulus should
a. immediately follow the unconditioned response.
b. follow the unconditioned stimulus.
c. follow the conditioned response.
**d. precede the unconditioned stimulus. **
Essentially, classical conditioning is a process of learning a(n) _______________ between two stimuli.
a. reflexive response
**b. association**
c. reinforcement
d. extinction
We say that stimulus generalization occurs when a learned response occurs to __________ stimuli as well.
**a. similar **
b. different
c. exactly the same
d. neutral
We could say that _____________ is the gradual weakening of a conditioned response.
a. continuous reinforcement
b. negative reinforcement
**c. extinction**
d. operant conditioning
In the video, you learned that Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner became famous for defining the principles of
a. classical conditioning
b. learning from positive reinforcement.
**c. operant conditioning.**
d. finding that control all animal behavior.
In the video, B.F. Skinner acknowledged that although ______________ works to control behavior, he much preferred the use of positive reinforcement to control behavior.
**a. punishment**
b. negative reinforcement
c. partial reinforcement
d. unconditioned response
Shaping involves reinforcing successively ____________ approximations of a behavior until the correct behavior is displayed.
a. punishment
b. negative reinforcement
c. partial reinforcement
**d. closer **
A cognitive map could be described as
a. an experimenter's maze.
b. a problem-solving schema.
**c. a mental representation of the layout of a familiar environment.**
d. an example of a mentor.
Learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement, but is not behaviorally demonstrated until a later time, is called
a. observational learning.
b. insight learning.
**c. latent learning.**
d. operant conditioning.
The cornerstone of observational learning is that it occurs
**a. indirectly.**
b. infrequently.
c. directly.
d. aggressively.
. The three basic memory processes are encoding, storage, and
**a. retrieval.**
b. exercise.
c. interference.
d. free call.
Your friend calls and at the end of the conversation, she gives you a new phone number, but you don't have a pen/pencil and paper to write it down. You repeat the phone number over and over. This is an example of
a. elaborative rehearsal.
b. forced recall.
c. motivated learning.
**d. maintenance rehearsal. **
Remembering how to ride a bicycle is an example of a long-term memory item, specifically
a. episodic memory.
b. short-term memory.
**c. procedural information.**
d. semantic information.
When a memory is unpleasant or disturbing, we often try ____________ to suppress it; however, when an event has been extremely traumatic, we may ___________ repress it. This theory is the basis of motivated forgetting; in other words, we forget because we are motivated to do so.
**a. consciously; unconsciously
b. unconsciously; consciously
c. not; try to
d. consciously; consciously
____________ involves active mental processes and is often directed toward some goal, purpose, or conclusion.
a. Perception
**b. Thinking
c. Sensation
d. Learning
Mental set is defined as the tendency to persist in _________ _____solutions the "same old way."
**a. solving problems
b. remembering events
c. overestimating the commonality of an event
d. overestimating the uniqueness of an event
A system of combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements is a definition of:
a. linguistic relativity.
**b. language.
c. intelligence.
d. intuition.
Which of the following interfere with our ability to perceive and accept contradictory information?
a. belief-bias effect
b. confirmation bias
c. fallacy of positive instances
d. overestimation effect
**e. all of the above.
The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment is called
a. psychopathology.
b. emotional reaction.
**c. intelligence.
d. aptitude test.
__________ tests are tests designed to measure the level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment, whereas ___________ tests assess a person's ability.
**a. Achievement; aptitude
b. Aptitude; achievement
c. Intelligence; achievement
d. Achievement; intelligence
If a test accurately measures what it has proposed to measure, the test is ____________, whereas if a test produces consistent results when administered repeatedly under similar conditions, the test has _____________.
**a. valid; reliability
b. reliable, validity
c. creative; standardization
d. standard; creativity
Psychologist _____________ explains that his triarchic theory of intelligence focuses on three critical areas: analytic, creative, and practical intelligence.
**a. Robert Sternberg
b. Albert Binet
c. Howard Gardner
d. David Wechsler
The three general characteristics that psychologists normally associate with motivation were introduced. These characteristics are
a. cognition, persistence, and activation.
**b. activation, persistence, and intensity.
c. intention, persistence, and activation.
d. activation, cognition, and intensity.
_______________ is the notion of the highest level of achievement of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, in which individuals make full use of their talents, abilities, and potential.
a. Drive theory
b. Instinct theory
**c. Self-actualization
d. Biological motivation theory
_______________ is defined as the eating disorder in which an individual refuses to maintain normal body weight and is afraid of gaining weight, while ______________ is defined as the disorder in which a person engages in binge eating and then purges the food by self-induced vomiting, or by using laxatives or enemas.
a. Bulimia nervosa; anorexia nervosa
b. Anorexia nervosa; obesity
**c. Anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa
d. Obesity; bulimia nervosa