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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which brain structure is most responsible for governing the autonomic nervous system?
(A) the corpus callosum
(B) the medulla oblongata
(C) the thalamus
(D) the hypothalamus
(D) the hypothalamus
Milgrim's experiment on obedience to authority foudn that a number of people obeyed the experimenter's orders to deliver shocks to another person. What kind of people served as subjects in Milgrim's experiment?
(A) only college students
(B) only military personnel
(C) prisoners and mental patients
(D) a diverse sample of normal adults
(D) a diverse sample of normal adults
The Society of Help Aging Rock Entertainers asks you whether you could contribute $50.00 per month to help cause, and you refuse. Then, the Society asks whether you could at least make a one-time contribution of $10.00. The Society is using the _____ technique.
(A) door-in-the-face
(B) that's-not-all
(C) self-handicapping
(D) foot-in-the-door
(A) door-in-the-face
According to Hans Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome, what is the order of stages the body goes through in response to stress?
(A) alarm, resistance, exhaustion
(B) resistance, alarm, exhaustion
(C) exhaustion, resistance, alarm
(D) resistance, alarm, exhaustion
(A) alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Which theory hold that our level of physiological arousal determines the intensity of an emotion and our interpretation of a situation determines which emotion we feel?
(A) opponent-process theory
(B) James-Lange theory
(C) Schacter and Singer theory
(D) Cannon-Bard theory
(C) Schacter and Singer theory
Harry accepts a request to play the piano at his church's Sunday services, even though he is still learning to play the piano. He plays a well-learned, simple piece. Happily, he perfomrs very well infront of his congregation. Harry's behavior illustrates:
(A) social compensation
(B) socail loafing
(C) the bystander intervention effect
(D) social facilitaion
(D) social facilitaion
People in group (especially a group od stangers) are less likely to help a person in need thatn a singl individual. Which of the following is the best explaination for this tendency?
(A) cognitive dissonance
(B) group polarization
(C) diffusion of responsibility
(D) prisoner's dilemma
(C) diffusion of responsibility
When one factor that influences behavior has different effects, depending on the level of another factor, is know, as a/an:
(A) zero sum game
(B) illusionary correlation
(C) interaction
(D) conditional probability
(C) interaction
In general, unpleasant events produce more stress if they are:
(A) controlable
(B) unpredictable
(C) rare
(D) predictable
(B) unpredictable
Psychologists Latane and Darley proposed that no one helped Kitty Genovese when whe was brutally murdered near her apartment in New York City in 1964 because:
(A) nobody realized she needed help
(B) it appeared she was the one committing the murder
(C) nobody wanted to get involved, our of fear for their own life
(D) eveyone knew there were other people who could, and persumably would, help her
(D) everyone knew there were other people who could, and persumably would, help her
Maintaining or changing one's behavior to mathc the behvavior of others is called:
(A) a self-fullfilling prophecy
(B) conformity
(C) group polarization
(D) the bystander effect
(B) conformity
Raymond says his brother Charlie, "I'm a very good driver," despite the fact that he is totally inept and hve very limited driving experience. His inflated view of his driving prowess is an example of:
(A) delusional cognitions
(B) downward social comparison
(C) self-evaluative maintenance
(D) the better-than-average effect
(D) the better-than-average effect
Maintaining stability of the body's temperature, weight, water, and other biological conditions is called:
(A) homeostasis
(B) libido
(C) intrinsic motivation
(D) sensation-seeking
(A) homeostasis
The process of assigning causes to someone's behavior (including one's own) is known as:
(A) cognitive dissonance
(B) group polarization
(C) attribution
(D) self-serving bias
(C) attribution
A famous study coducted by LaPiere (1934) showed that, when a Chinese couple attempted to visit a hotel or restaurant, almost all of the establishments _____ them, which was _____ with their written policy.
(A) accepted, consistent
(B) accepted, inconsistent
(C) rejected, consistent
(D) rejected, inconsistent
(A) accepted, consistent
The rule that implicity or explicity govern the behaviors of members of a group are called:
(A) goals
(B) roles
(C) norms
(D) status hierarchie
(C) norms
Which part of the autonomic nervous system prepares the body for "flight or fight"?
(A) parasympathetic nervous system
(B) sympathetic nervous system
(C) neither the sympathetic nor the parasympathetic nervous system
(D) both the sympathetic and parasympathetics nervous systems equally
(B) sympathetic nerovus system
Which of the following is evidence that people have built-in, unlearned tendencies for certain facial expression?
(A) people in all parts of the world laygh equally frequently adn they laugh at the same things
(B) children who are born deaf and blind develop normal facial expressions
(C) peopleuse various facial expressions throughout the day, even when they were feeling no emotion
(D) humans use facial expressions to express emotions and other animals do nto
(B) children who are born deaf and blind develop normal facial expression
How dow bulima differ from anorexia?
(A) Bulimics typically maintain normal weight, while anorexics become abnormally underweight
(B) bulimics often eat large amounts of food, ehile anorexics eat very little
(C) bulimia is much more common than anotexia
(D) all of the above
(D) all of the above
Suppose you are sitting in one of you classes, and you di not underdstand what the professor is saying. You'd like to aks a question but, as you look arounf the room, you see others quietly taking notes and it appears that they all understand. Because nobody is asking questions, you don't either. AS it turns out, however, the majority of the students are thinking just as you are. So nobody asks any questions. This situation illustrates the concept of:
(A) the diffusion of responsibility
(B) pluralistic ignorance
(C) social loafing
(D) group polarization
(B) pluralistic ignorance
In Dr. Capo's vivid description of an incident that illustrates the "power of the situation," which species of animal almost kille dthe young reveler?
(A) tiger
(B) lowland gorilla
(C) rhinoceros
(D) polar bear
(D) polar bear
Many self-help books instruct readers to perform action "A" and, as a result, "B" will happen. However, such books rarely ecplain the fundamental principles that govern the desired effect. Stanvich calls this type of "knowledge"
(A) piecemeal knowledge
(B) recipe knowledge
(C) metacognition
(D) naive knowledge
(B) recipe knowledge
The hormone, secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stress, which elevates blood sugar and enhanses metabolism is
(A) endorphins
(B) estradiol
(C) oxytocin
(D) cortisol
(D) cortisol
Which kind of people are most likely to gain weight?
(A) those with anxiety problems
(B) those who crave salt
(C) people with depression and anger
(D) people who expend very little energy
(D) people who expend very little energy
An area of the brain that is especially important in determining when to start and stop eating is the:
(A) cerebellum
(B) hippocampus
(C) medulla
(D) hypothalamus
(D) hypothalamus
A psychosomatic illness is bes described as an illness:
(A) that is in the person's imagination
(B) in which people have an impaired ability to distinguish between reality and fantasy
(C) that is influenced by stressful experiences and reactions to stress
(D) that result from neorons that are incapable of generating action potential
(C) that is influenced by stressful experiences and reactions to stress
The Society for the Defense of Apathy asks you to make a $1.00 contribution, and you agree. Later, they ask you for a $50.00 donation. The Society is using the _____ technique.
(A) that's-not-all
(B) self-handicapping
(C) door-in-the-face
(D) foot-in-the-door
(D) foot-in-the-door
Attributions that we adopt in an effor to maximize our credit for success and minimize our blame for failure are called:
(A) self-esteem beliefs
(B) self-serving biases
(C) fundamental attribution error
(D) bystander effect
(B) self-serving biases
Damage to the lateral hypothalamus leads to _____ and damage to the ventomedial hypothalamus leads to ____.
(A) weight loss, weight gain
(B) weight loss, weight loss
(C) weight gain, weight loss
(D) weight gain, weight gain
(A) weight loss, weight loss
A group of military stategists has agreed on a plan to attack an island. No one questioned whether the plan has a reasonable chance of success. Which of the following best describes what happened during that meeting?
(A) diffusion of responsibility
(B) social loafing
(C) groupthink
(D) bystander apathy
(C) groupthink
How does a high level of insulin in the blood lead to an increase in appetite?
(A) it causes glucose to be stored as fat, instead of remaining available for use as energy
(B) it increases the rate at which the body burns energy supllies and, therefore, increases the body's nutritional needs
(C) it directly alters the taste buds to increase their response to sweet tastes
(D) it slows digestive processes and, therefore, decreases the frequency of meals
(A) it causes glucose to be stored as fat, instead of remaining available for eused as energy
According to the James-Lange theory:
(A) emotion is our perception of bodily movements and autonomic changes
(B) frusteration leads to aggression
(C) the limbic system of the brain is critical for emotional behavior
(D) intermediate arousal levels produce the best performance on difficult tasks
(A) emotion is our perception of bodily movements and autonomic changes
The term "coping" refers to:
(A) the harmful effects of stressors
(B) the process of learning to decrease the negative effects of stressors
(C) the acquisition of enough physical comforts to counteract stressors
(B) the process of learning to decrease the negative effects of stressors
Hans Selye's alarm stage is characterized by activation of the :
(A) digestive system
(B) glial cells
(C) parasympathetic system
(D) sympathetic system
(D) sympathetic system
When a group of psychiatrists was asked to predict whether participants would give the highest level of shock to the "learner" in Milgrim's obedience experiemetns, the psychiatrists predicted that:
(A) very few would administer the highest level
(B) two-thirds would administer the highest level
(C) three-fourths would administer the highest level
(D) all would administer the highest level
(A) very few would administer the highest level
The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to
(A) use external, or situational, causes as decoy attributions to explain our failures
(B) feel less responsiblility for helping someone when you that other people are around
(C) overemphasize internal, or dispositional, attributions for other people's behavior
(D) silence all disagreement and move quickly toward a group decision
(C) overemphasize internal, or dispositional, attributions for other people's behavior
Anorexia nervosa is far more likely to occur in _____ than in _____.
(A) young children, teenagers
(B) African Americans, European Americans
(C) African Americans, Japanese people
(D) women, men
(D) women, men
Brandy is at a concert where she is surrounded by thousands of people. Though she is normally shy and afraid to express her feelings, she soon gets swept up in the madness around her. She joins the "mosh pit" and begins yelling, laughing, and dancing histeriacally. Which of the following best explains her sudden loss of inhibition?
(A) deindividualation
(B) bystander intervention
(C) social facilitation
(D) groupthink
(A) deindividualation
The mrere exposure effect refers to the fact that:
(A) we tend to dislike someone we are merely exposed to, if we are unable to interact with the person
(B) we tend to prefer people we have merely been exposed to over those we know well
(C) proximity makes people like each other less
(D) we tend to increase our liking for people who have become familiar
(D) we tend to increase out liking for people who have become familiar
Accoring to the cognitive dissonance theory, people:
(A) will change their behavior only after their attitudes have changed
(B) always try to undertand and explain their own behavior
(C) change their attitudes to reduce the tension that results from inconsistent attitudes and behaviors
(D) will like an activity if they recieve a large payoff for doing it
(C) change their attitudes to reduce the tension that results from inconsistent attitudes and behaviors
After a political candidate lost badly in an election, the paid political workers were discouraged, but the volunteers felt their effort was worthwhile. What psychological prinicple is probably responsible for this difference in attitudes?
(A) group polarization
(B) conformity
(C) cognitive dissonance
(D) attributional bias
(C) cognitive dissonance
What evidence do some psychologists cite to support the idea that humans have a few "basic" emotions, such as joy, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust?
(A) each of these emotional experiences depend on teh activity of a different neurotransmitter in the brain
(B) people with vaious genetic abnormalities expereince all of these emotions except one, and different mutations delete different emotions
(C) each emotion develops rather suddenly at a different age in human development
(D) people throughout the world can recognize facial expressions corresponding to those emotional experiences
(D) people throughout the world can recognize facial expressions corresponding to those emotions
Since psychology is probabilistic, psychologists should not:
(A) try to predict behavior at all
(B) make claims about general behavioral tendencies
(C) claim to be able to predict behavior case by case
(D) be concerned with behavior
(C) claim to be able to predict behavior case by case
The best predictor of stress-related illness seems to be:
(A) any major change in life circumstances
(B) any positive event that is not view as such
(C) any negative event
(D) the total amount of lifes' daily hassles
(D) the total amount of life's daily hassels
The group poloarization effect refers to the fact that:
(A) a group composed of people with widely differing opinions tends to shift most of its members towards a moderate position
(B) groups that discuss an issue tend to split into opposite, hostile camps
(C) people with opposite personalities find each other attractive
(D) after a group discusses an issue, it tends to shift toward a more extreme position
(D) after a group discusses an issue, it tends to shift toward a more extremem position
Stanovich describes the desire to find one "single cause" explainations in terms of searching for a(n):
(A) interaction
(B) magic bullet
(C) conditional probability
(D) oddmatch
(B) magic bullet
Social loafing refers to peoples' tendencies to:
(A) group other people together based on socal status
(B) put less effort into relationships that have been ongoing than in new relationships
(C) work less hard when sharing the work with other people than when working alone
(D) work less hard when they have an audience then when they are alone
(C) work less hard when sharing the work with other people than when working alone
According to Stanovich, the Achilles' Heel of Human Cognition is:
(A) memory
(B) the unconscious
(C) probabilistic reasoning
(D) common sense
(C) probabilistic reasoning
Suppose you are taking a course on drugs and behavior. When the instructor informs the class that research indicates that heavy consumption of alcohol is related to depression, one of you fellow students raises his hand and claims, "that can't be true. My uncle drank every day and he was never depressed." Your peer was using whta Stanovich calls a/an:
(A) actuarial prediction
(B) gambler's fallacy
(C) person-who statistic
(D) inversion error
(C) person-who statistic
Which of the following is the best reason for why the measurement of an attitude may not correlate strongly with a particular behavior?
(A) attitudes change much more frequently than behavior changes
(B) people frequently lie about their attitudes
(C) people usually behave in a way to intentionally hide or mask their true attitudes
(D) many variables other than attitudes also influence behavior
(D) many vairables other than attitudes also influence behavior